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Hydroxyl Free Radicals by Hunter S. Nodson - Thu, 25 May 2017 14:43:57 EST ID:+41/TUGa No.78663 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1495737837795.jpg -(549713B / 536.83KB, 1000x750) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 549713
I'm currently using kratom to isolate its alkaloids via oxidation > extraction and am starting to get concerned of possible byproducts of my reaction. I am not using lab grade glassware for the first steps involving oxidation with H2O2.

My main concern, is it possible for free radicals to form and possible trace amounts of metals in my final product. I'm basically soaking the kratom in H2O2 and agitating on low heat with small amounts of citric acid added, then that is continued until the material is almost completely dry where I'm assuming the leftover liquid is water since the H2O2 oxidizes the mitragynine and 7-OHM into mitragynine pseudoindoxyl. Can anyone experienced in organic chemistry help me out with this?

We only use cold water for the extraction of the oxidized kratom material so that isn't much of a concern as much as using metal pots and pans during the actual oxidation process. Should I be concerned of consuming free radicals once fully evaporated? Are there any possible byproducts that can form from doing this?

Thanks a ton and excuse my ignorance in chemistry, I don't know shit besides what I learned in highschool and my current research onto this topic.

The pic attached is the final product after filtration of the initial oxidized material through cold water into 5 then 1 micron filters then finally evaporated at low heat.
>>
Jenny Gashford - Tue, 30 May 2017 01:03:54 EST ID:UoTssc8h No.78669 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>My main concern, is it possible for free radicals to form and possible trace amounts of metals in my final product. I'm basically soaking the kratom in H2O2 and agitating on low heat with small amounts of citric acid added, then that is continued until the material is almost completely dry where I'm assuming the leftover liquid is water since the H2O2 oxidizes the mitragynine and 7-OHM into mitragynine pseudoindoxyl. Can anyone experienced in organic chemistry help me out with this?
Unless you can find a paper that confirms that this is possible with peroxide, you have no way of knowing whether this works, doesn't do anything, or converts the reactants into something else entirely. Just because mitragynine pseudoindoxyl is a metabolite of mitragynine doesn't necessarily mean you can just use any oxidant to get a clean conversion from one to another. You'll be more likely to succeed if you collect pure mitragynine via acid-base extraction and then oxidize it, probably with something other than peroxide.

>We only use cold water for the extraction of the oxidized kratom material so that isn't much of a concern as much as using metal pots and pans during the actual oxidation process. Should I be concerned of consuming free radicals once fully evaporated? Are there any possible byproducts that can form from doing this?
Free radicals do not persist in solution that long. nothing you can do with 3% peroxide is going to be more toxic than either the leaves or the peroxide solution.

>The pic attached is the final product after filtration of the initial oxidized material through cold water into 5 then 1 micron filters then finally evaporated at low heat.
Unless you added a fuckton of acid it's unlikely that what you have is much different from soaking kratom in water for a long time and then evaporating. Start with an acid-base extraction to get the alkaloid contents of the leaves.
>>
Hunter S. Nodson - Tue, 30 May 2017 01:32:25 EST ID:5wCuF3rA No.78670 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78669
there are articles on it, it is documented my man. It takes a few minutes of google and there is plenty on the oxidation of 7-ohm into mitragynine psuedoindoxyl. I'll post it tomorrow when I get a chance though.

thanks for that reassurance, like I said I'm ignorant to this in all aspects and this is a learning experience for me so bare with me. We did though, I got the pH down to 4. As far as the difference between just soaking in water, we've tested it. It does not come out like this at all. The peroxide makes a giant difference. I do understand h2o2 wont oxidize much until the pH is lowered a decent amount.


Candyflip creation by Alice Fezzlefoot - Sun, 28 May 2017 22:51:16 EST ID:eE+IWTWR No.78666 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1496026276961.jpg -(532507B / 520.03KB, 1507x1270) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 532507
I'm looking to start small-scale creation of mdma and lsd. I've got next to no chem. knowledge, and no lab setup yet.

Got any recommendations for reading? Uncle fester and schulgin are the only ones i know of and both are above my pay grade.
What glassware is required? Recommended?
Any recommended materials sources?

Thanks
>>
Ernest Funkinridge - Mon, 29 May 2017 14:44:35 EST ID:1k9L2kSO No.78667 Ignore Report Quick Reply
1496083475179.jpg -(7234B / 7.06KB, 225x63) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size.
step 1: buy an mdma cap
step 2: buy an acid tab
step 3: pour the mdma crystals on the acid tab

You have now successfully created mdma and lsd
>>
Albert Fozzlepid - Mon, 29 May 2017 23:07:10 EST ID:1SeWUhLk No.78668 Ignore Report Quick Reply
1496113630912.jpg -(17895B / 17.48KB, 200x229) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size.
>What is 2c-b


Stoichiometry a bitch by Nathaniel Blellyway - Fri, 26 May 2017 04:22:42 EST ID:WkWxSK6I No.78664 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1495786962793.jpg -(4130979B / 3.94MB, 5312x2988) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 4130979
Could someone please jog the old memory bank. How in the fuck do you get 1.8×10^(-6) from 2.8x10^(-8) mol × 63.5g mol-1???
>>
Caroline Drennerwell - Fri, 26 May 2017 13:09:34 EST ID:UyoEcrVg No.78665 Ignore Report Quick Reply
2.8 times 63.5 is 177.8
Move the decimal over a couple places and you get 10^-6 instead of -8
It's rounded to 1.8 because of significant figures.


Work thoughts by Hugh Bangersotch - Sun, 21 May 2017 07:51:22 EST ID:ZPX2kpEE No.78655 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1495367482443.png -(245976B / 240.21KB, 398x297) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 245976
Does anyone else think of dumb shit while they're at work? Yesterday I was thinking about bubble theory, what if this entire universe repeats itself exactly when it ends.

So everything happens again and again in one big circle, like how your pulse keep pulsing and your lungs keep breathing, what if the solar system is an element like those in the periodic table, I mean if you look at one then you see the electrons orbiting around a neutron or something right?

I realise all this is very retarded but this kind of thinking does help the hours go by.
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Sun, 21 May 2017 15:20:46 EST ID:+OxnRrIT No.78656 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78655
leibniz believed every atom / molecule was once the implosion of a separate universe that came to an end. he justifed it using a shitload of descartes's writings and then came up with monads or some shit
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Sun, 21 May 2017 15:24:50 EST ID:+OxnRrIT No.78657 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78655
>I mean if you look at one then you see the electrons orbiting around a neutron
wrong
>or something right?
correct. electrons don't "orbit" because they don't obey newtonian physics. they jump in and out of spacetime in a probability cloud that goes from the nucleus to their orbitals. this is how overlaps work. electrons spend 0.01% of their "time" in the nucleus of an atom due to an effect called "quantum tunnelling".
>>
Priscilla Banninghood - Mon, 22 May 2017 06:23:24 EST ID:ZPX2kpEE No.78659 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78657
Thats some cool shit man.
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Tue, 23 May 2017 13:59:57 EST ID:KYAxJBOe No.78662 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78659
Thanks.

I am the universe.


Extract Heroin from Garlic Paste by Toum - Mon, 01 May 2017 08:23:55 EST ID:GJqJPZ5S No.78644 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1493641435717.jpg -(5774B / 5.64KB, 259x194) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 5774
This is urgent as my life literally depends on it. My suppliers showed up with what was seemingly my regular kg pickup but actually was 10kg of garlic paste with the heroin suspended within it somehow. Am told that I have to extract the materials from the paste for them or I will exist no more.

Will a simple Acid Base extraction do the trick IE:

Mix Paste into Water + Lye Solution and Agitate for hour

Add solvent of choice (Cold Distilled Water + Methanol Mixture?)

Let contents settle

Siphon Solvent and Evaporate to retrieve powder

Purify powder using known methods via HCL / Diethyl Ether

Comment too long. Click here to view the full text.
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Mon, 01 May 2017 12:15:40 EST ID:LOsBBPHa No.78645 Ignore Report Quick Reply
"Am told that I have to extract the paste from it or I will exist no more"
I would highly advise you to get someone who knows food chemistry to help you out if you value your life. Not us people

A shitload of the compounds will probably form HCl salts as amines (and sulfinated groups) are common in organic residue like this. That means they'll come out as well. Also, how much diamorphine per 10kg of garlic paste? Remember that HCl facilitates the decomposition of diacetylmorphine to morphine.

Try not to use methanol since it'll extract some organic material too.
>>
Phineas Greenworth - Mon, 01 May 2017 16:37:16 EST ID:UoTssc8h No.78646 Ignore Report Quick Reply
make absolutely sure that you try whatever extraction method you decide upon on a small portion of it first to verify that it works, then do a larger batch, then the rest. You don't want to try to extract all of it at once and then fuck up and die. I would also test the raw garlic paste to ensure that the shit they gave you actually has dope in it. Hope you like the taste of garlic.

The solvent has to be immicible with water so that you can actually extract the dope from the water-soluble stuff; ie. methanol + water won't work. toluene/xylene (paint thinner) or petroleum distillates (zippo fluid) are good choices.

You should try to figure out or measure (with pH paper / pH meter) exactly how much base you need to add to freebase the heroin. If you add too much it will decompose. Likewise for converting it back to the salt. The best method for acidifying the freebase is to bubble dry HCl gas through organic solvent with the dope dissolved in it. This way the crystals with precipitate right out of solution and can just be filtered off and dried. generating HCl gas is dangerous shit, though.
>>
Polly Dubberhood - Thu, 04 May 2017 19:02:13 EST ID:hBAZGxou No.78648 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78644
this sucks because heroin hydrolyses in water and it's been in water for a long time so... it's probably hydrolysed! oopsie. heroin doesn't hydrolyse very fast in neutral water but you can bet after a few weeks a lot of it is broken down to 6-monoacetyl morphine

anyway, what I would do first is dry the garlic to a powder and then wash with cold deionized water a few times which should dissolve and remove sugar but not heroin. Save a little water from each wash and see how much sugar is coming off; you'll probably have to wash it about four or five times. Also make sure you're not losing too much heroin. Then you can perform an A/B extraction on the resulting garlic powder (extract it with COLD acid, filter, then basify) to end up with heroin. You'll actually get rid of all the minor constituents and garlic alkaloids from the heroin by just recrystallizing it from ethyl acetate or something, but since it's partially hydrolysed it might not recrystallize very well. If it gets too hot it can hydrolyse.

If you can't get a clean recrystallization and it's ruining your yield, you can try hydrolysing the whole mess in boiling NaOH (which converts heroin to morphine), extracting that and re-forming heroin with acetic anhydride. That would suck though.

And tell your idiot suppliers not to put the heroin in water next time.
>>
Polly Nallystone - Mon, 22 May 2017 18:40:32 EST ID:+YUSEic8 No.78660 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Seriously who hides heroin in garlic paste?
>>
Fanny Billinglock - Mon, 22 May 2017 20:02:01 EST ID:H2dReURr No.78661 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78660
Italians?


Volatile stuff by Fuck Worthingwill - Sun, 21 May 2017 20:21:38 EST ID:hNxjAHrm No.78658 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1495412498451.jpg -(134104B / 130.96KB, 720x960) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 134104
At my job in a corn refinery I check solutions of 3% NH3, 2&5%NaOH, 7%HCl w/v using a graduated cylinder, specific gravity bobber, a pH meter temperature probe, and a reference calculation.

Is there a better way? It seems to me we should be able to incorporate some kind of probe out in the plant to check these constantly and automatically adjust instead of taking everyone's time to do them be hand every few hours, look at the results elsewhere, call them reasonably accurate, and adjust, all the while exposing the sample collectors and lab personnel to hazards.

Pic is from my research plot at uni, Boris came from a stray pollen grain in this otherwise introgressed population and had to be castrated.


P2NP reductive amination by Zeb - Mon, 20 Feb 2017 15:02:04 EST ID:F56IS3nI No.78536 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1487620924101.jpg -(16458B / 16.07KB, 400x280) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 16458
where can i find the true procedure to reduce P2NP to the amine with hgcl2/al?
>>
Jack Blackdock - Sat, 15 Apr 2017 23:52:51 EST ID:fXXYn8yb No.78638 Ignore Report Quick Reply
1492314771660.jpg -(86932B / 84.89KB, 500x667) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size.
>>78536
funny story i tried this route many times with poor results, that amalgam is a bitch and/or not strong enough to reduce the molecule OR I fucked up something doing the amalgamation process

somebody has experience with this procedure?
>>
Fuck Drasslewill - Sun, 23 Apr 2017 17:51:32 EST ID:F7xhKEnl No.78642 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78638
bamping
>>
Nell Blindlewater - Sun, 14 May 2017 17:03:04 EST ID:dJ2q6ECJ No.78652 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78638
nobody?
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Sun, 14 May 2017 23:10:56 EST ID:3RVckahy No.78653 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78638
uhhhhh
>>
press - Tue, 16 May 2017 17:59:40 EST ID:OHYz+LTM No.78654 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78638
ime Eleusis was partly correct in hi quotation of vogels.
if you prepare the aluminium in advance it tends to get the job done much quicker and ... well quicker and thus much more dangerously. you should always care for proper safety precautions converning spillage when dealing with highly toxic bullshit.


i'll just leave this here by Betsy Gonkinlot - Mon, 27 Mar 2017 03:58:41 EST ID:6p22FvVe No.78612 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1490601521191.png -(43318B / 42.30KB, 414x524) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 43318
cf piperine, phenylacetic acid, etc.
5 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
>>
Schepperschop - Sun, 16 Apr 2017 07:54:25 EST ID:xTIigKo1 No.78639 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78612
how about you get some sesamol instead???
>>
Rebecca Clapperbare - Mon, 17 Apr 2017 19:51:12 EST ID:6Uohuwu9 No.78640 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78637
Tungsten costs a few tens of dollars per pound. I was excited to use tungsten instead of ruthenium which is about $50/ounce or indium which is similar. Additionally tungsten is widely used in tools which are OTC whereas runthenium and indium are only used in electronics. About one ounce of tungstic acid is used to cleave 100 grams of piperic acid.

Sesamol is impractical. The content of sesamol in sesame oil is less than 1%. I spent years developing routes from sesamol and felt like an idiot when I realized this.
>>
Charlotte Hurringchare - Tue, 25 Apr 2017 18:52:15 EST ID:UoTssc8h No.78643 Ignore Report Quick Reply
What about forming the diol with peroxide and base then cleavage with nickel?

This paper shows 1,2-cyclohexanediol can be cleaved to adipic acid just by dumping it in with some bleach and nickel nitrate/acetate: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo0612574. Theoretically this should yield the aldehyde if the nickel oxidant were instead isolated and the reaction done under anhydrous conditions.
>>
Polly Dubberhood - Thu, 04 May 2017 18:42:57 EST ID:hBAZGxou No.78647 Ignore Report Quick Reply
i don't think you need any metals actually, just Oxone ( http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040402014000842 ) and acetonitrile ( https://www.sciencemadness.org/whisper/viewthread.php?tid=11137&page=2 )
>>
Martin Dicklecocke - Sun, 14 May 2017 10:17:15 EST ID:UoTssc8h No.78651 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Has anyone tried the dithionite reduction of piperinic acid? The source OP cited only has info on reducing acids with aliphatic side chains and I'm thinking that conjugation with the aromatic ring might cause the beta-gamma unsaturated acid to re-arrange to the gamma-delta or otherwise muck something up


Science denialist vent/ rant. by James Mother Fucking Randi - Fri, 31 Jul 2015 04:30:23 EST ID:FW3hqiSI No.76865 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1438331423442.png -(547907B / 535.07KB, 451x604) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 547907
I started a thread on /spooky/ asking for any evidence of the paranormal or supernatural.

Instead all I got was a bunch of personal attack and people babbling nonsense and presenting it as truth. Then when shown they are incorrect with verifiable data rather than pseudoscience they resort to personal attacks again. They and pretty much all other magical thinkers take any sort of challenge to their beliefs as a personal attack.

I was at a party a few months back and some girl was talking about how she went to some yoga guy who does "laying on of hands". Which involves doing yoga while a dude puts his hands on your body and makes weird noises. Supposedly doing this achieves any number of effects from healing wounds, curing depression and other supposed boons.
not arguing the therapeutic effects of yoga just the laying on of hands part
I tried to understand what she was explaining to me by asking questions. Like asking her what was actually happening because it made 0 sense to me. Instead she started insulting me for being closed minded and shit.

Also in real life I live in the US south. Where people who think the world is 6000 years old is the norm.

Needless to say I deal with people who use magical thinking on a regular basis.
They are 100% willing to reap the benefits of science and the technology that comes with it until it conflicts with some myth or story about ghosts or some shit some one told them. Then all reason and logic go out the window.

Why do so many people especially in the us reject verifiable facts over what feels good? I went to the same public schools as them, I was also raised in a religious household (jewish, although I'm no longer religious). The only difference is that I chose the rational answer.
Comment too long. Click here to view the full text.
89 posts and 15 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
>>
trypto - Sat, 10 Oct 2015 16:30:23 EST ID:VTEeSGZV No.77276 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>77261
Most scientific philosphies or scientifically-oriented epistemology focus on how nothing is ever truly 'proven'. It's a purely skeptical stance, in contrast to mathematics which has actual proofs. This is pretty much the starting point for a deeper understanding of how/why science is successful. Bombastus knows this, which is why he used the quotes here:
> science can "prove" various concrete things.

But he fucked it up with this ambiguous phrase:
>if we're discussing the absolute value of something

Absolute value of something? Who knows what that means. It's just sloppy talk. He's probably talking about the colloquial concept of "proof", but saying shit about "absolute value" gives the opposite impression.

I see what >>77235 is saying, but I also think the phrase "scientifically proven" is acceptable and different from plainly 'proven'. "scientifcally proven" is some confidence past a basic consensus. but the phrase should be avoided for this reason.
>>
Samuel Pittway - Mon, 12 Oct 2015 15:06:58 EST ID:/dGkbVvd No.77281 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>77276
Since we all know that nothing can be 100% proven, I think the word "proof" can imply an implicit acknowledgement of that fact.
>>
Reuben Sanderfoot - Tue, 13 Oct 2015 01:26:14 EST ID:uGD5aNS6 No.77282 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>77281
Its more appropriate to just say "indicates" or "we hypothesize".

>>77276
I agree, I just tend to shy away from the word. What happens all the time is the scientific community accepts something in a consensus, only to have that consensus overturned or it falls to more complete models. As you said, just try to keep a healthy dose of skepticism of everything since we are so far away from total understanding of anything, especially in the realm of physiology.
>>
Samuel Nishson - Thu, 29 Oct 2015 03:51:53 EST ID:A6yjNMdA No.77338 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>I was at a party a few months back and some girl was talking about how she went to some yoga guy who does "laying on of hands". Which involves doing yoga while a dude puts his hands on your body and makes weird noises. Supposedly doing this achieves any number of effects from healing wounds, curing depression and other supposed boons.

She was probably just saying that because she wanted you to be sceptical and then invite her to demonstrate or whatever out of "curiosity" and it would all quickly escalate into sex.

I won't believe a girl could genuinely be that ditzy.
>>
Cornelius Brookstock - Sat, 13 May 2017 20:41:40 EST ID:H2dReURr No.78650 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>77338
>Lay on Hands
That's riht out of dnd... my anti-paladin used to use that one all the time.


Benzyl Methyl Ether by James Husslemodge - Mon, 08 May 2017 16:21:46 EST ID:H2dReURr No.78649 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1494274906343.gif -(2140B / 2.09KB, 400x300) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 2140
Is Benzyl Methyl Ether good for anything? I have a jar containing a mixture of Ethanol, Benzyl Methyl Ether, and a few random indoles... no fucking clue what to use this for. I was high and felt like extracting a lilac bush, and now I'm sober.


unexplored waters by Frederick Blillyfoot - Sat, 22 Apr 2017 17:42:58 EST ID:UoTssc8h No.78641 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1492897378795.png -(23977B / 23.42KB, 567x417) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 23977
Pretty much any phenol without other more lablie reactive sites can be converted to an allylbenzene (like safrole) via condensation with allyl halide and subsequent aromatic Claisen rearrangement of the allyl phenol ether. From there it's known chemistry to get to an amphetamine derivative. pic related is delta-tocopherol, a form of vitamin E, and it's resulting amphetmaine derivative, which is strikingly similar to the 2C-x's and DOx's. There are literally thousands of easily obtainable phenol-derivatives out there with possibly psychoactive derivative amphetamines. Why has there not been more exploration into this chemical space?


Which Major Least hard by breakabond - Sat, 04 Mar 2017 01:53:55 EST ID:LObRvGV/ No.78585 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1488610435460.jpg -(170885B / 166.88KB, 670x901) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 170885
Which major requires less chemistry? Because to me, chem always seemed like an endless list of things to memorize: polyatomic ions, acids, bases, electron charges, drawing Lewis-dot diagrams, etc ad nauseum...

  • Neuroscience
  • Pharmacology
  • what else?
3 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
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Vehk !7HYGxe5v5c - Wed, 15 Mar 2017 22:39:07 EST ID:l5Akm3J6 No.78600 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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>>78585
> chemistry
> endless list of things to memorise

as a synthetic organic chemist i am highly triggered

it is literally an art fam
>>
Hugh Tillingforth - Thu, 16 Mar 2017 06:35:02 EST ID:025IxSqV No.78605 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78596
500k available CS jobs in the USA an industry that will never have enough people to be (oversaturated) at least in the next 10 years. Maybe web development sure. Any 12 year old with a computer could be a "web dev" CS is literally the highest paying degree you can get right now.
And there will only be higher demand with new technologies like virtual reality. CS really has endless possibilities of application, not to mention you don't need to work for someone, you could always do your own thing, and still make good money, or even freelance. If you do things for the money though you will realize you really really hate what you're doing.

>DId the bare minimum just to get good grades
yeah, most schools CS program are absolutely dog shit
>>
Fucking Lightham - Wed, 12 Apr 2017 00:30:04 EST ID:roSXguau No.78634 Ignore Report Quick Reply
chem is fun in the lab, did neurosci major because the psych courses were easy, now getting over more into computer science. study what you like tho, you'll have plenty to memorize anyway.
>>
Samuel Clayfuck - Wed, 12 Apr 2017 03:39:38 EST ID:4tmtdVyg No.78635 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78597

Weed helped me learn calculus II somehow.
>>
Esther Drandlegold - Sat, 15 Apr 2017 13:01:09 EST ID:q+gC2Vuv No.78636 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Neuroscience probably has less chemistry but both of those majors are pretty heavy memorization. You will have to memorize drug/metabolic pathways. At least in chemistry there is an internal logic to it once you get the basics down, but with molecular pathways it's almost senseless memorization with having to know all the different (often randomly named) parts and how they interact with each other.


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