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genetic diversity by Barnaby Pellerfore - Tue, 04 Jul 2017 23:34:57 EST ID:BSeQaa1k No.78720 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1499225697763.jpg -(193016B / 188.49KB, 1500x1125) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 193016
How important is genetic diversity?

My mother and father are very far removed, my father being mostly Slavic/Eastern European, and my mother being mainly Celtic. My paternal grandparents are also very distant from each other, my paternal grandmother being Russian/Belarusian, and my paternal grandfather being Ukrainian and Turkish. However, it turns out that my maternal grandparents are third or fourth cousins, so I guess there is some inbreeding there. Realistically, what are the impacts of this?
13 posts and 1 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
>>
Schepperschop - Fri, 01 Sep 2017 03:30:58 EST ID:81NLKdBS No.78805 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78798
If you think anal is horny stick a finger up your asshole and tell me truthfully if it was nice if it was love if it felt wonderfull.
I dont believe anal is good
stupid gay
>>
Schepperschop - Fri, 01 Sep 2017 03:32:48 EST ID:81NLKdBS No.78806 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Queers are wierd.
gay=hate
>>
Schepperschop - Fri, 01 Sep 2017 03:34:33 EST ID:81NLKdBS No.78807 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78806
have you heared no-one likes gays?
>>
Fucking Gendlehick - Fri, 01 Sep 2017 09:11:29 EST ID:4tmtdVyg No.78808 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>ITT: Muslims
>>
press !XIxc6BpKnU - Fri, 01 Sep 2017 11:05:51 EST ID:ak42GqP4 No.78811 Ignore Report Quick Reply
1504278351531.png -(1349B / 1.32KB, 153x71) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size.
DICKS EVERYWHERE


ethanol without methanol by Sick Phalange - Sat, 05 Aug 2017 11:06:50 EST ID:Sj2brtVd No.78760 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1501945610321.png -(112884B / 110.24KB, 300x366) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 112884
I got some 70% denatured alcohol but now I hear it is deliberately poisoned with methanol to prevent consumption (what kind of asshole would do such a thing is beyond me). Do you know of any way to get a solution of just ethanol, without methanol, from common shops?
1 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
>>
fartsy McAnEducatedChemist. - Sat, 05 Aug 2017 19:59:29 EST ID:RqIP/IlU No.78762 Ignore Report Quick Reply
if it is methanol, it can be removed using fractional distillation.

if that term is unknown to you then research is needed to not kill yourself. if you don't know, you likely do not have the skills required.

i do not advocate this method. try brewing your own alcohol. it is stupidly easy once you know how to do it and you can make 18% alcohol for like $1/liter
>>
fartsy McAnEducatedChemist. - Sat, 05 Aug 2017 20:03:17 EST ID:RqIP/IlU No.78763 Ignore Report Quick Reply
an easy way to do it is to get EC1118 yeast and add it to water that has been boiled with the sugar.

my equation based off of experience is [desired alcohol content]x20x[final volume in liters] = [total grams of sugar needed]

for example 21L of 18% alcohol would require 21L*20*18=7560g of sugar.

you can add fruit or juice or whatever to make it taste better. research brewing for the rest of the details.
>>
Hedda Saffingchad - Mon, 07 Aug 2017 03:46:53 EST ID:+YUSEic8 No.78768 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78762
18% is probably a bit high without the turbo yeasts, the highest % i've managed was 15% with a very good yeast. But you can get up to around 30% with freeze distillation (fractional freezing)
>>
press !XIxc6BpKnU - Mon, 07 Aug 2017 04:02:05 EST ID:PJ0/E4z+ No.78769 Ignore Report Quick Reply
1502092925674.png -(149512B / 146.01KB, 391x391) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size.
  1. mix water, yeast nutrients, tomato paste and citric acid
  2. make yeast starter
  3. add yeast to the sugar sludge
  4. build still while waiting for fermentation and settling to complete

or just order non denaturated hooch on the internet
homedistiller.org
>>
Bombastus Werrywag - Mon, 07 Aug 2017 09:04:18 EST ID:RP4l/Dxt No.78771 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78762
To my knowledge, methanol doesn't form an azeotrope with ethanol. Anhydrous samples can be distiled and collected that way. If it's 30% methanol, you can just distill out 30ml of a 100ml sample and it should be fine once the temperature reaches 75C


ALIENS! by HELP - Tue, 13 Jun 2017 06:18:18 EST ID:aZjxDii8 No.78682 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1497349098334.jpg -(42883B / 41.88KB, 475x288) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 42883
in businesses there's a book that has a phone number for a place you call in case of extra terrestrials, what's their number?
someone should call them and let them know that you've found an alien who's claiming key word: Jesus Christ!
1 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Mon, 19 Jun 2017 13:34:39 EST ID:/YEP+Iv0 No.78698 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78682
I love this info-graphic.
>cadmium, arsenic
i'll give you that one
>ammonia, toluene, methanol, acetic acid, hexamine
most combustion products and starters produce or contain these. combustion makes them different
>methane, carbon monoxide, butane
no fucking shit
>nicotine
NO FUCKING SHIT
>>
press - Mon, 19 Jun 2017 17:00:18 EST ID:aryEr6jM No.78699 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78698
you forgot paint. the most dreaded pokemon of them all.
nb
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Fri, 23 Jun 2017 13:02:47 EST ID:E1Us5n5n No.78706 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78699
POKEMON
POKEMON MASTER
POKEMON ARE THE CHAMPIONS
>>
Bombastus Werrywag - Wed, 28 Jun 2017 02:08:03 EST ID:0tetFdrb No.78713 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78709
y u ruin our perfectly good thread?
>>
John Dartville - Thu, 03 Aug 2017 18:03:31 EST ID:ORz+tP6a No.78759 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Fuck now I want a cig


Science .PDFs by Charlie of the Chans !!kWjRhGF5 - Thu, 27 Jul 2017 22:42:18 EST ID:GBUzU4oL No.78756 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1501209738564.png -(123434B / 120.54KB, 1920x1080) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 123434
Hi there /chem/, there is a website where you can download a lot - and I mean thousands - of science textbooks (all categories) for free. Most of them are in .pdf files, but there are a number in the .epub, .mobi, and .djvu formats as well. I uploaded a small selection of what I've gotten at Zippyshare, here:

http://www44.zippyshare.com/v/3IAuapuz/file.html

They cover the hard sciences and run at about 135 MB for the .zip file.

The website is here:

http://gen.lib.rus.ec/

and please read their "Letter of Solidarity," here:

http://custodians.online/
>>
Clara Fuckingcocke - Wed, 02 Aug 2017 02:39:16 EST ID:zi8Fqzy7 No.78758 Ignore Report Quick Reply
thanks m8, will definitely give it a dig


Synthesis of ghb (free acid) from gbl by Matilda Chommlekog - Tue, 18 Jul 2017 22:06:27 EST ID:1reNg8pO No.78749 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Hey/chem/
I recently came across some lab grade gbl (gammy-butyrolactone) which is the precursor to GHB. I've got a few questions because I've never find GH and I'm having a hard time finding some info from chemists who know what they're doing.

Firstly, I wanted to make GH in its free acid firm, rather than the common sodium butyrate salt. What I want to know are whether its fine to take it in free acid form. I think the pka is about 4, so it shouldn't be too sour if diluted in water, but taking it in free acid produces the same effects right? I assume that taking the sodium salt would Judy result in it finding in the acidity of the stomach anyways, I just would prefer to not have to eat a bunch of salt on the side.
Also, did I do something wrong in my procedure?

I started with about 10g gbl weighed analytically, and calculated the moles for sodium hydroxide which was between 6-7g, but I put in some excess to try to push the reaction forward.
I then added a bit of water, roughly 20mL in a round bottom flask, added the hydroxide and then the gbl. After a few minutes, I capped the flask and put it in an oil baths at 70 celcius.
After 2-3 hours, I added a bit of hydroxide to make sure the reaction was basic and he GH would be in its salt form, then I washed the solution with ether 3x to get rid of any remaining unreacted gbl. I took the aqueous layer and added HCl from a 1M solution until the pH was about 2-3, low enough for the gh to be in its acid form. I think the problem is here, because I couldn't find concentrated acid so I ended up adding a lot of water on the side..
Then my last step was to extract the ghb from the autos later with ether. I did this about 3x, combined the etherI'm layers, and evaporated off the ether. I was left with 2g when theoretical yield should have been about 12g.

Do you think that because I ended up using so much water, my remaining gh is in the aqueous solution? I know theree acid is readily soluble in both water and ether, so I'm wondering if this is my problem.

Also, how can I test the solution to show I have ghb with no gbl? I don't want to use the NMR spectrometer just in case somebody ends up seeing the spectrum and askin…
Comment too long. Click here to view the full text.
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Matilda Chommlekog - Tue, 18 Jul 2017 22:10:40 EST ID:1reNg8pO No.78750 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Sorry about all the spelling/grammar errors, I wrote this on the bus on my phone and it autocorrected way too much.
I meant to write the sodium salt just converts into the free acid in the stomach, so taking the free acid should produce the same effects as taking the salt right?
>>
Lydia Clannerfeck - Thu, 20 Jul 2017 17:47:14 EST ID:UoTssc8h No.78751 Ignore Report Quick Reply
ayy so GBL is a prodrug to GHB. You could just eat the GBL.

Keep extracting the aqueous layer. There's probably more in there. Also try adding some salt (NaCl) to the water to lower the solubility of the GHB in it.

You can tell if there's any GHL in it by taste. GHL supposedly tastes awful whereas GHB is tasteless.
>>
press !XIxc6BpKnU - Sat, 22 Jul 2017 18:28:22 EST ID:PJ0/E4z+ No.78753 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78751
ghb has a distinct taste too, it just isnt as fucking horrible as gbl
somewhere between gasoline, coconut and soap
OP have you considered to simply mix the gbl with a sodium carbonate solution to get a ready to use sodium ghb solution.
obviously youd have take in more volume but it always worked for, although getting too much sodium isnt too healthy and the sodium salt gave me just as much diarhea as gbl.
since the sodium salt is hygroscopic anyways youd have to hustle to keep it dry


https://www.erowid.org/archive/rhodium/chemistry/ghb.html
>>
Cyril Sunnertot - Mon, 24 Jul 2017 16:41:05 EST ID:CwYciqLe No.78754 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Thanks for the replies everyone. I found a paper and read that ghb is rarely found in its free acid form as it readily converts back to GBL. This back conversion happens even more easily in acidic conditions, which I used to try to protonate the free acid. I will extract as much of what is most likely gbl now from my aqueous solution using salt to push it to the organic layer, evaporate any ether and water left over and mix the gbl back with a small excess of sodium hydroxide. I'll calculate it so that once all the gbl had reacted with the sodium hydroxide in a 1:1 stoichiometric fashion, that the pH will be about 8.5 at the end in a small precculated volume so the ghb doesn't convert back to gbl


Thin Layer Chromatography by Hannah Divingpit - Mon, 19 Jun 2017 12:24:25 EST ID:hzoMepax No.78695 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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gonna make some TLC plates using some glass microscope slides, wondering what the best paper to use for cellulose is? i was thinking using a thin tissue or something but it's incredibly soft and porous which makes me think that i might not get very clearly defined results. any suggestions?
1 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
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Ebenezer Brookridge - Tue, 11 Jul 2017 12:54:10 EST ID:ufRuh+sC No.78735 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78695

Would Acetone suffice in place of IPA?

Also, obviously(?) whatever you're testing would require the right kind of solvent to avoid destruction of the sample - anyone care to elaborate on this?

Very interested in TLC (and making a ghetto HPLC setup) myself
>>
Cedric Dreffinghall - Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:40:54 EST ID:4tmtdVyg No.78736 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78735

Acetone can be used in tlc, but for best results, you may want to combine the acetone with chloroform at various concentrations. Acetone would behave as the polar component of your eluent while chloroform would behave as the non-polar component of your eluent.

Try 100/0 75/25 50/50 25/75 0/100

Should get a variety of results for your purposes.
>>
Cedric Dreffinghall - Tue, 11 Jul 2017 13:49:20 EST ID:4tmtdVyg No.78737 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78735

As far as destruction of the sample, when you choose a solvent for solvating the material, it must do two things:

Dissolve the sample
Be inert to the sample

As an example, sulfuric acid will probably dissolve your sample, but will typically make a poor solvent due to the likelyhood of it protonating the shit out of your sample. A solvent like octane will make a good solvent for non-polar materials because it is straight chain hydrocarbons which are non-reactive under standard conditions. Same concept with acetone, except for polar samples.

Both octane and acetone can become reactive with the right materials under the right conditions, and that's why you need to know what your sample reacts with so you can choose a solvent that will both dissolve the sample and be inert to it.
>>
Ebenezer Brookridge - Tue, 11 Jul 2017 15:24:29 EST ID:ufRuh+sC No.78738 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78737

Awesome info, thank you
>>
Bombastus Werrywag - Tue, 11 Jul 2017 17:45:21 EST ID:QGxEeR56 No.78745 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78737
You can use pure water if paper is your stationary phase.


BK-2-CB > Injectable 2-CB solution? by George - Thu, 06 Jul 2017 06:02:36 EST ID:A0Fffnyd No.78722 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Have tried this three (3) times with repeatable results:

2ml sterile water

(x) amount of Ascorbic Acid to sufficiently acidify the water (No precise measuring equipment available)

(x) amount of B-K-2-CB (As above)

Add enough Ascorbic Acid (it is believed Citric as supplied in UK would work as well) to the water to dissolve *Without Heating*

Add (x) amount of B-K to dissolve with *a very little heating* or you're going to be injecting recrystallised 2-CB - exciting as that sounds, it is fucking painful and could possibly end very quickly in sudden cardiac arrest, depending on which vein is used... *BE VERY CAUTIOUS*

Enjoy your instant stimmy effects followed by typical 2-CB effects

Comment too long. Click here to view the full text.
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William Sesslechane - Thu, 06 Jul 2017 19:42:30 EST ID:haI/LE4/ No.78730 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78729

Just a quick reply for now, I do believe the B-K commonly supplied is a base, hence the shitty reaction with water, also the long reaction time when taken orally

So I theorised that adding it to *acidified* water would return it to salt, either 2-CB or a useful form of BK

Why is it not possible to convert B-K to 2-CB?

Also not sure of the legality of B-K in Deutschland, aber Ich hab gemacht ein Besucht fur drei Gram und es kommt mit kein Problem...
>>
press !XIxc6BpKnU - Fri, 07 Jul 2017 03:04:15 EST ID:8p3TFTlr No.78731 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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>>78730
its possible to convert bk-2c-b to 2c-b, but youd need a strong reductant to reduce the ketone at the beta or rather 1-position carbon to a methylene. as youve said, adding citric acid to bk-2c-b would simply form a more water soluble salt of bk-2c-b. but not 2c-b. youd get bk-2c-b citrate
>>
Samuel Davingdidge - Fri, 07 Jul 2017 12:44:17 EST ID:UoTssc8h No.78733 Ignore Report Quick Reply
The standard procedure for reducing ketones to alkanes in one step is the wolff-kishner reduction, which requires complexation of the ketone with hydrazine (used in rocket fuel) and heating the mixture to 200 C for a few days to a week. ascorbic acid is a MILD reducing agent, and there is pretty much zero chance of this method producing even fractions of a percent of yield of 2CB from bk-2CB. The placebo effect is a much better reducing agent, but still not as good as hydrazine.
>>
Hannah Susslebury - Fri, 07 Jul 2017 16:36:34 EST ID:rANt8sEP No.78734 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Awesome guys, thanks for all the info... Back to the drawing board then, or a very expensive lab...
>>
Bombastus Werrywag - Tue, 11 Jul 2017 17:43:46 EST ID:QGxEeR56 No.78744 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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>>78731
>>78733
You don't need need Hydrazine. LiAH could work because of the conjugation from the pi ring. If LiAH does work, then you can just do it using the pop bottle test and overkill it with LiAH. No water allowed, of course.

A simpler, cheaper, but much harder method is clemmenson that is an in-situ reducing agent (hydrogen gas) by mixing a zinc or mercury amalgum and with HCl or HBr

>>78729
keine chemische ist legal im deutschland... danke, praesident der E-U.

From what my basic knowledge of receptors tells me (from around one and a half pharmaceutical chemistry courses i took a while ago) is that that ketonic group would be much less active than 2c-b for dopamine / serotonin effects. it could possibly give you the side effects of the compund but none of the mental, spiritual, or stimulating properties.


Extract Heroin from Garlic Paste by Toum - Mon, 01 May 2017 08:23:55 EST ID:GJqJPZ5S No.78644 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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This is urgent as my life literally depends on it. My suppliers showed up with what was seemingly my regular kg pickup but actually was 10kg of garlic paste with the heroin suspended within it somehow. Am told that I have to extract the materials from the paste for them or I will exist no more.

Will a simple Acid Base extraction do the trick IE:

Mix Paste into Water + Lye Solution and Agitate for hour

Add solvent of choice (Cold Distilled Water + Methanol Mixture?)

Let contents settle

Siphon Solvent and Evaporate to retrieve powder

Purify powder using known methods via HCL / Diethyl Ether

Comment too long. Click here to view the full text.
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Polly Dubberhood - Thu, 04 May 2017 19:02:13 EST ID:hBAZGxou No.78648 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78644
this sucks because heroin hydrolyses in water and it's been in water for a long time so... it's probably hydrolysed! oopsie. heroin doesn't hydrolyse very fast in neutral water but you can bet after a few weeks a lot of it is broken down to 6-monoacetyl morphine

anyway, what I would do first is dry the garlic to a powder and then wash with cold deionized water a few times which should dissolve and remove sugar but not heroin. Save a little water from each wash and see how much sugar is coming off; you'll probably have to wash it about four or five times. Also make sure you're not losing too much heroin. Then you can perform an A/B extraction on the resulting garlic powder (extract it with COLD acid, filter, then basify) to end up with heroin. You'll actually get rid of all the minor constituents and garlic alkaloids from the heroin by just recrystallizing it from ethyl acetate or something, but since it's partially hydrolysed it might not recrystallize very well. If it gets too hot it can hydrolyse.

If you can't get a clean recrystallization and it's ruining your yield, you can try hydrolysing the whole mess in boiling NaOH (which converts heroin to morphine), extracting that and re-forming heroin with acetic anhydride. That would suck though.

And tell your idiot suppliers not to put the heroin in water next time.
>>
Polly Nallystone - Mon, 22 May 2017 18:40:32 EST ID:+YUSEic8 No.78660 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Seriously who hides heroin in garlic paste?
>>
Cyril Hasslespear - Fri, 30 Jun 2017 08:46:34 EST ID:BIUvdYqW No.78716 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78644
bro, no one is gonna send valuable tar in garlic powder, I hope you die for being tar dealer
>>
George Depperfit - Sat, 01 Jul 2017 11:12:11 EST ID:4tmtdVyg No.78717 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Holy lol,

I wouldn't try acid base, I'd start with an aromatic solvent like xylene. Diamorphine is highly aromatic and you're more likely to get a hit on a non polar aromatic solvent. Plus acid base is typically used to free chemicals from plant matter. Since garlic doesn't naturally contain morphine, or any forms of it, I would think that the morphine is mixed in rather than bonded with the garlic in any way.

I would try soaking the material in xylene for an hour, placing the mixture in a cheese cloth, and squeezing the liquid into a separate container, preferably glass since some plastics are soluble in aromatic/non-polar solvents. Then chill the strained liquid in a freezer and scrape up the solids that come out. Use the liquid left over to soak the garlic again for a second and third extraction.

More than likely, the solids that appear after freezing will be dirty with garlic compounds as well, but it's the first step in the right direction. after that, just purify it.
>>
George Depperfit - Sat, 01 Jul 2017 11:20:59 EST ID:4tmtdVyg No.78718 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Oh wow, this thread is old as fuck

OP, you dead?


howthefuck by Hedda Tootford - Mon, 19 Jun 2017 21:16:38 EST ID:UoTssc8h No.78700 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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ergine from morning glory seeds
xylene from paint thinner (in place of toluene)
diethylamine from the hydrolysis of DEET
hydroxylamine sulfate from photography supply
By your powers combined, DIY-LSD!

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201107348/abstract


Work thoughts by Hugh Bangersotch - Sun, 21 May 2017 07:51:22 EST ID:ZPX2kpEE No.78655 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Does anyone else think of dumb shit while they're at work? Yesterday I was thinking about bubble theory, what if this entire universe repeats itself exactly when it ends.

So everything happens again and again in one big circle, like how your pulse keep pulsing and your lungs keep breathing, what if the solar system is an element like those in the periodic table, I mean if you look at one then you see the electrons orbiting around a neutron or something right?

I realise all this is very retarded but this kind of thinking does help the hours go by.
4 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
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Edward Claybury - Sat, 10 Jun 2017 13:05:02 EST ID:lPzkmzGj No.78679 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78655
in the BOHR MODEL: the electrons look like little planets rotating around stars. inconveniently the bohr model does not compare to experiments well. quantum mechanics which states that electrons form clouds which look nothing like planetary orbits work much better.

I think there is a sense in which your thinking has something to it. From the molecular scale to the universe there are many things which look roughly the same since there are basically not that many fundamental forces through which things interact (in the case of non-dark matter which we understand well). For example planets under the action of gravity (a potenial that scales as 1/r where r is distance between the two objects and is attractive) really look quite similar to electrons interacting with protons (a potential that scales as 1/r and is attractive). Early models based off this (by Bohr) worked ok, but failed to predict really important aspects of atoms. Physics is basically about making analogies like this, but knowing that they will fail at some point.

As for whether the universe repeats itself, I figure that is possible in a certain way. All the math done to understand our Big Bang, would technically apply to any similar Big Bang. However you should look into this concept known as chaos. There are many systems which are totally understood as a chain of reasonable physical events (event 1 leading to event 2 so and so forth to some final state). Yet the sequence of events is so sensitive to the initial preparation of the system, that in practice the final state of the system appears completely random. Probably the outcome of the big bang a few billion years after the fact would look highly randomized. I figure the odds of a big bang happening completely identical to ours, leading to you reposting this comment are crazily low.
>>
Betsy Dapperwater - Mon, 12 Jun 2017 18:56:07 EST ID:4tmtdVyg No.78680 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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>>78679

>which states that electrons form clouds

I always thought that the 'cloud' was a conceptual method to help us visualize what is happening at the subatomic level, as in the cloud is the average position of the electron while the electron is still a minuscule fraction of the cloud as a whole.

Does the electron take up the entire space of the cloud? Or is located at a single point in the cloud which we average to be spatially accurate? Or is it both? Or is it neither? Am I here now or am I an average of my current position? Am I real?
>>
Ernest Bubberbanks - Wed, 14 Jun 2017 00:00:06 EST ID:GaLvZHtU No.78684 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78680
Read the other anon's post. The cloud isn't a "cloud", it's a probability field where the electrons are about 90% of the time.
When you get down to such small particles they don't behave like matter, so it's hard to visualize. Basically these electrons pop in and out of existence and preferably along this cloud, albeit sometimes outside.
>>
Martin Garryhuck - Sat, 17 Jun 2017 12:42:54 EST ID:rFcppG1T No.78692 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78680
by cloud I mean a region where the particle is by far most likely to be. They don't look like circles was my main point as it indicated the planet-sun analogy breaks down at some point.
The answer to where the electron is depends on who you ask. The coppenhagen interpretation is that the electron only exists when you measure it. It has the potential to be in many places within the cloud, but only exists once measured. The Bohnian interpretation is that the electron is always there, but is traveling along a wave and interacting with the wave so that the probabilities of measuring it in any given place are complicated.
Both these views, and a few others, have their supporters in the physics community. I personally have problems with both. Firstly because niether of them provide new predictions, only interpretation I am not so keenly interested in them. Secondly both have issues. It is commonly accepted that though the coppenhagen interpretation provides a consistent way of understanding quantum, it isn't very satisfying physically. Generally physicists like to have a deeper set of mechanics they can understand a given system to be composed of, even if they don't need to include it in the math. Then the Bohmian interpretation, which providing such an underlying picture, is yet to explain essential qm phenomena such as entanglement.
As a result I suggest you let math lead your interpretatiom on quantum. Our desire to create mechanical pictures can be problematic in qm. It has led major qm pioneers to state qm is incomplete or broken. Yet with our weird mathematical description we understand how fundamental particles interact, how to make transitors for computers, engineer flourescent dyes which are essential to modern biology, and image things at the molecular level using spectroscopy.
>>
Phyllis Furringfield - Sun, 18 Jun 2017 10:15:49 EST ID:bunUMqYH No.78693 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78680
electrons are a lot like cats


P2NP reductive amination by Zeb - Mon, 20 Feb 2017 15:02:04 EST ID:F56IS3nI No.78536 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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where can i find the true procedure to reduce P2NP to the amine with hgcl2/al?
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press - Tue, 16 May 2017 17:59:40 EST ID:OHYz+LTM No.78654 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78638
ime Eleusis was partly correct in hi quotation of vogels.
if you prepare the aluminium in advance it tends to get the job done much quicker and ... well quicker and thus much more dangerously. you should always care for proper safety precautions converning spillage when dealing with highly toxic bullshit.
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Archie Bungerworth - Fri, 02 Jun 2017 15:20:38 EST ID:buvhlIwH No.78675 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78654
just how high are you?
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press - Tue, 06 Jun 2017 05:18:01 EST ID:xjn9cxbO No.78676 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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>>78675
a strong six out of ten, id guess.
------------------------------------------------------

The Proper Preparation of Aluminum Amalgam
by Eleusis

This is for all of you Dr. Shulgin fans out there that might be a little miffed at poor yields when attempting mild reductive aminations (not the fruity little Disney characters, kids). The trick here is *cleaning* the damned foil before you use it. Follow closely, be careful with the mercuric solutions, they can be absorbed transdermally (in other words, use gloves, dumbass).
Preparation of Aluminum Amalgam

Aluminum Amalgam is a useful mild reducing agent which requires careful preparation in order to be effective. The following is adapted from Vogel's Practical Organic Chemistry.

Prepare 10% Sodium Hydroxide solution by dissolving 20g NaOH in 180mL of distilled water.

Prepare a ~2% Mercuric (II) Chloride solution by dissolving 1g of HgCl2 in 50mL of distilled water.
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Nicholas Dunningbut - Wed, 14 Jun 2017 19:49:28 EST ID:ZYvGRZ+j No.78689 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78676
tbh I prefer to use something more direct and efective to reduce chemicals
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Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Wed, 14 Jun 2017 23:45:52 EST ID:Pues0B4h No.78690 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78689
LiAlH under nitrogen. But then again, that's completely different...


Volatile stuff by Fuck Worthingwill - Sun, 21 May 2017 20:21:38 EST ID:hNxjAHrm No.78658 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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At my job in a corn refinery I check solutions of 3% NH3, 2&5%NaOH, 7%HCl w/v using a graduated cylinder, specific gravity bobber, a pH meter temperature probe, and a reference calculation.

Is there a better way? It seems to me we should be able to incorporate some kind of probe out in the plant to check these constantly and automatically adjust instead of taking everyone's time to do them be hand every few hours, look at the results elsewhere, call them reasonably accurate, and adjust, all the while exposing the sample collectors and lab personnel to hazards.

Pic is from my research plot at uni, Boris came from a stray pollen grain in this otherwise introgressed population and had to be castrated.
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Angus Pickstone - Fri, 02 Jun 2017 02:35:29 EST ID:Yd/IDzLj No.78673 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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>>78658
Corn refinery?
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Hamilton Bockledock - Fri, 02 Jun 2017 03:20:48 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78674 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I wish I could tell you but I don't know about fractional distillation nor column chromatography. Sorry sir.
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press - Wed, 14 Jun 2017 13:39:45 EST ID:3upPNRT1 No.78686 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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im not familiar with the setup of a sugar factory and i dont know what exactly youre asking but in some cases an icorporated EC or pH sensor -or a series thereof- is good enough to adjust to the correct levels.

but if all youre checking is the stated solutions which are then added in a whole batch as opposed to continous flow, id reckon that a graduated zylinder and a single EC or pH probe that is calibrated for the given range would be enough. you could then just mix them in bulk and store the fitting amounts in containers? ive got no fucking idea.

as i now begin rambling id like you to take everything with a 58g of salt.
for automation of pH and EC and density you could use an arduino based sensor system if youre just getting into automation. there are quite reliable prebuilt shields and chips for pH and EC. depending on the general setup of the system you could either use a microcontroller, arduino based or a clone, and fucking labview, or run a microcontroller via python to log data and readjust the solutions. but in my experience the pumps and valves(which would normally fare fine at the concentrations youve listed) are still fucking expensive or not that easy to build from scrap.

and no offense, eventhough ive been both a security supervisor and a union representative, there bettter be a huge lot of 3% ammonia or 7% HCl before its more of a danger to personnel than to equipment.

was that 2,5% sodium hurensohnoxide or 2,5? and just keep volatile shit out of direct sunlight and in airtight bottles that arent placed above a fire.


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