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How fucked am I career wise by Beatrice Pirringway - Wed, 10 Dec 2014 23:55:07 EST ID:35aAJkQK No.75857 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Okay, so 3rd year bio major at a university currently. Been shadowing doctors this semester and even set to take the MCAT for next summer after some review courses. After seeing what is truly necessary to get the level of an attending physician, the time and debt in medical school, residency hours, dramatic lifestyle changes and lack of free time, I'm really questioning my integrity to really follow through with becoming a doctor. I've been looking at PA programs as well due to less overall commitment but still get to work in healthcare.

But what if I don't want to do that either. Am I fucked with basically having a bachelors in bio and trying to find work? I'd even do a masters program if I had to but even then, will I be able to work for a pharm company or something of the sort? Advice greatly appriciated.
David Shittingdale - Thu, 11 Dec 2014 04:11:42 EST ID:4r8uNptk No.75858 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I'm in a similar position OP. Fourth year neuroscience major, I always figured I'd be an M.D. but now i don't think so. My mom did a masters in cell bio and worked in big pharma for a while but was unable to really advance. My advice to you would be to enter a Ph.D. program and go into research if it interests you. I've worked in a research lab for a few years now and that stuff is majorly interesting. Far cheaper to get the Ph.D. than the M.D. too. you can work in pharma and make some good money without having the whole medical school debt thing.
Rebecca Decklenane - Thu, 11 Dec 2014 12:07:22 EST ID:uGD5aNS6 No.75859 Ignore Report Quick Reply
There are also MD/Phd's OP. The good thing about M.D. Phd's is because you are doing research you typically get R.A. positions, which negates the debt aspect of your worries. On the down side it does nothing to allieviate the time and effort problems.
Bio degrees are fine for jobs so long as you have a good amount of lab experience. What do you guys research specifically.

Genetically Modified Organisms by jish - Mon, 10 Nov 2014 18:42:27 EST ID:uBnLEAsY No.75689 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Preparing a speech for my public speaking class. My thesis will be something like this: Instead of continuing the spread of gmo misinformation we should focus on utilizing gmo’s especially in developing countries while we continue to research more potential benefits.

If you guys have any input I'd appreciate. Tell me why you think gmo's are good or bad so I have an idea of exactly what I need to go over in my speech. Thanks in advance!
38 posts and 3 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
Jenny Peffingfield - Wed, 03 Dec 2014 10:23:28 EST ID:f/SJzTz5 No.75836 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>It's hardly a consensus when most of what you Americans use is banned in the EU.
It is a consensus among scientists who actually study it. With GMO's, that is. There are some EU-banned additives in the US, and there are some US-banned additives in the EU. That's really not surprising, since both agencies will ban chemicals based on very subtle results.

The EU won't even fund GMO *research.* What does that tell you? They look like how the US congress acts on global warming.

>And when you introduce a new technology, especially for food, you do have to prove it's safe, whereas we can reasonably assume that food we've eaten for millenia should be safe.
Odds are, the organic tomatoes you eat were sprayed with Bt toxin. Has it been "proven safe?"

>On a more trivial note, I simply never have tasted a chem tomato (not GMO, I'm not American) that was nearly as good as a well grown organic tomato.
That's not because of the "chemicals," that's because those commercial tomatoes were bred to be flavorless, round, easily stackable and deceptively red. They're disgusting, but it's nothing to do with pesticides and fertilizer. I've got a great farm stand nearby that isn't organic, but grows the best fucking heirloom tomatoes imaginable. Organic produce tastes good because they use good varieties, and the distribution is faster.

Also, I don't think there are any GMO tomatoes currently on the market.
Hamilton Givingstene - Wed, 03 Dec 2014 13:40:26 EST ID:dH6V9OBg No.75837 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>Odds are, the organic tomatoes you eat were sprayed with Bt toxin. Has it been "proven safe?"
Yes, most if not all organic regulations are a joke, but it's certainly a step forward if you want something more "natural", something closer to the food we've evolved to eat.

>That's not because of the "chemicals," that's because those commercial tomatoes were bred to be flavorless, round, easily stackable and deceptively red. They're disgusting, but it's nothing to do with pesticides and fertilizer.

That's a fair point, however I wouldn't attribute it all to breeding. I am convinced the same cultivar grown in a solution of salts and in organic soil would not have near the same amount of taste, the same complexity of flavours and aromas.

I haven't done the experiment with tomatoes but I have with cannabis, and while it's not conclusive proof, I've noticed a very stark difference between the two, in terms of smell and effect (in favour of the organic one). And here the main difference is fertilisers; my personal opinion is that there is more than NPK (and Fe, Mg, Ca, etc.) that influence a plant's growth. I don't believe for a second we've unravelled the complexity of plant nutrition and physiology to the point where a solution of salts can successfully emulate a dynamic, living, system. I digress.

To back this up a bit, I'll point you to these papers :
Jenny Peffingfield - Wed, 03 Dec 2014 14:20:15 EST ID:f/SJzTz5 No.75838 Ignore Report Quick Reply
> I am convinced the same cultivar grown in a solution of salts and in organic soil would not have near the same amount of taste, the same complexity of flavours and aromas.
I agree. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terroir

I didn't mean to imply that large scale industrial farming is always the answer. The farm near me isn't organic, but it also isn't a massive corporate entity going for quantity over quality. And I'm not one of those anti-organic people who scoffs at the thought.
Clara Geddlewill - Wed, 03 Dec 2014 14:38:26 EST ID:HWJw5+yl No.75839 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Ah! A polite and reasonable person on the internet, on 420chan no less.
I'm slightly ashamed of the abrasiveness of my previous comments.
Alice Shakehood - Sat, 06 Dec 2014 03:58:09 EST ID:XmdoMEgl No.75845 Ignore Report Quick Reply
> Sprayed with Bt Toxin


Evaporation/Condensation Effect by Jack Sippercocke - Mon, 17 Nov 2014 02:00:49 EST ID:RLSN+6eM No.75741 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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I turned a lamp on and pointed it at a partially filled water bottle. The lamp was pointed at an angle and only on 1 side of the bottle. I expected water droplets to form where the lamp was shining on, but the exact opposite happened. Notice that water is everywhere BUT where the lamp is shining on.

Can anyone explain why this is? What's happening here?
Esther Bummerstone - Mon, 17 Nov 2014 08:36:08 EST ID:CWCt4/QH No.75745 Ignore Report Quick Reply
The lamp heats up that side, so any water molecules that touch the warm part bounce off rather than condense.

To have water droplets, you need water in the atmosphere which then condenses on something cold. The lamp heats up the water, and it leaves most of the plastic cold enough for water to condense. Think of a cold bottle and a warm bottle on a humid summer day. Obviously, the cold one will have droplets but the warm one won't.
Nathaniel Sopperpuck - Fri, 05 Dec 2014 15:50:37 EST ID:qhWq3cmg No.75842 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Water condenses on the side that's cold. Cold air is able to hold less water as it has less generalized kinetic energy to keep the heavy water molecules suspended in air. Therefore as it touches the cold side, the air cools, condenses the water and droplets form.

The warm side has the droplets condensing to some degree but the energy from the light causes them to bounce off the plastic and back into the air.
Shit Dodgechare - Fri, 05 Dec 2014 22:28:59 EST ID:RLSN+6eM No.75844 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Thank you :)

Higher dimensional musings by lawlercaust !CBDMr8zxnk - Mon, 10 Nov 2014 06:45:58 EST ID:Ayt+CMPb No.75684 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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So, I have an incomplete and (at best) flawed conception of higher dimensions. But I want to solidify my ideas and get some answers from you guys.
If my logic is correct, shouldn't the need for the collapse of quantum wave functions become irrelevant beyond the 6th dimension? Because quantum probability and wave functions tell us probability is collapsed into certainty, but in the 6th D (and higher up) shouldn't that become irrelevant because I'll possible probabilities are happening simultaneously/have happened/will happen? So in essence quantum mechanical wave functions are not even wave functions/probability fields... They are concrete occurrences... every singe goddam one.

Fuck. How to comprehension?
William Fopperhood - Mon, 10 Nov 2014 14:48:36 EST ID:RK6dBCZl No.75686 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>Because quantum probability and wave functions tell us probability is collapsed into certainty, but in the 6th D (and higher up) shouldn't that become irrelevant because I'll possible probabilities are happening simultaneously/have happened/will happen?
What? Why 6? What are you saying happens with 6 dimensions? Why does it happen with 6, and not 5 or 4.
Fucking Sanderpan - Tue, 11 Nov 2014 16:42:16 EST ID:ecA/RYIj No.75698 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Dimensions are simply the variables required to describe a domain. Let's move away from spacetime for a bit (since those concepts are strongly tinted by our tendencies towards naive realism) and look at other examples of dimensions.

How many dimensions does a set of colored circles on a sheet of paper have? It's 4 - x and y coordinates, radius, and color. To describe a swinging door, we need 2 dimensions - angle and time. The contents of a cup of coffee might be described in 5 dimensions - volume, temperature, caffeine, sweetness, acidity.

Higher dimensional theories in physics are used to unify different structures. If some kid with a pack of crayons drew colored circles all over my front door, I could describe any possible circle in the resulting combined system in 6 variables.

A 10-dimensional theory like superstring theory is similarly formed, by joining a 6-dimensional Calabi-Yau manifold to our familiar 4-dimensional spacetime. The extra dimensions allow for the description of string behavior in relation to 4d spacetime.

It sounds like you've heard of something like Ouspensky's "all possibilities of all things" conflated with Everett's multiple world interpretation of quantum mechanics. Please keep those ideas apart. Ouspensky's six dimensions describe a possibility space of a classical system (despite claims to the contrary, it has no mechanisms of superposition or interference or decoherence/collapse), whereas the MWI is a valid interpretation of quantum mechanics (though personally I prefer the relational interpretation). Even if you include every possible probability (a 7th dimension?), that still doesn't describe interference and collapse and the physical influence of information.

Please understand that dimensions aren't alternate planes of existence, there is no "the 3rd dimension" or "the 6th dimension". There is just reality, and 3 or 6 or n-dimensional theories to describe it.
David Hasslepuck - Tue, 02 Dec 2014 22:56:39 EST ID:DKtUI/mA No.75834 Ignore Report Quick Reply
3d is how you see entire 2d thing at once

4d would be entire 3d thing at once

the question of why can I only go from one place to the place it is adjacent to? Find a new adjacentcy

Gravity is not things being moved down, it is recognition of our accelerating upward along one of these 4th dimensional directions. Multiple 3D movements at once.
Emma Worthingway - Fri, 05 Dec 2014 04:21:07 EST ID:JANiHDME No.75840 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I think OP means temporal dimensions

sonic booms colliding by Ian Gockleville - Mon, 01 Dec 2014 04:16:47 EST ID:wC5/3Op6 No.75824 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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what would it be if two sonic booms "collided" into each other?
Alice Pivingforth - Tue, 02 Dec 2014 16:49:48 EST ID:0LSSBiID No.75833 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Waves don't collide, they pass through one another. For the brief time they were superimposed, the local air pressure would be double what it was in each separate front.

Organic chemistry mechanisms by Phineas Babberhene - Mon, 01 Dec 2014 15:51:04 EST ID:rUFa/BFm No.75826 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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OK /chem/, I'm learning organic chemistry and I really don't understand this:
Why does the -OH group (from water) replace the halogen group in halogenoalkanes, but a halogen can replace the -OH group in alcohols.
Why does this happen?
Which group is more reactive?
Are both reactions nucleophilic substitutions?
Please help fellow chemists!


Found It Yet? by Basil Gamblenuck - Thu, 27 Nov 2014 08:01:28 EST ID:27xriYsz No.75804 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Have you guyz found the higgz yet? Like what is stopping you ffs
Oliver Brogglederk - Fri, 28 Nov 2014 00:15:54 EST ID:CWCt4/QH No.75805 Ignore Report Quick Reply
THey found it, dude. The LHC in euroland found evidence of it.
Cornelius Darryson - Fri, 28 Nov 2014 09:52:16 EST ID:W9ZvC6sa No.75806 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Where Does Stomach Source Cl- ? by Nigel Nickleham - Fri, 14 Nov 2014 00:25:02 EST ID:RLSN+6eM No.75719 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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The stomach has HCl, so how is this produced? Our bodies must combine H+ and Cl- somehow, right? If so, where does it get these two ions from?
6 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
Matilda Smallbanks - Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:39:20 EST ID:gyndGALy No.75785 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Would it not be possible to get sodium/potassium from other salts? I'm kind of doubting the claim that it's impossible to cut out chloride from your diet, although it might be extremely difficult even in a controlled laboratory setting.
trypto - Tue, 25 Nov 2014 01:43:58 EST ID:CWCt4/QH No.75786 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Chloride ions are still needed for some neuronal functions. You would die.
Graham Blunningpidge - Wed, 26 Nov 2014 01:51:46 EST ID:uGD5aNS6 No.75794 Ignore Report Quick Reply
No it wouldn't because as I said chloride is ubiquitous. All life relies on it to function, so unless you are eating lab grade chemicals, its impossible.

Here are 2 physiological situations in which you use Chloride
you stomach, upon stimulation, starts secreting H+ ions across its epithelial cells. Subsequently, it secretes Cl- ions, the result is HCl or hydrochloric acid.

GABA is a neurotransmitter, generally inhibitory in nature. It binds to receptors on neuronal cell surface that open channels responsible for causing Chloride ions to flood into the neuron, making it less likely to fire.
If you didn't have these ions, you would suffer from epileptic seizures. You would probably also set your self up for all kinds of other excitotoxic damage as well.

Also let me put it to you this way, pure water does not exist in nature. Pure, deionized water is so caustic that it will eat through metal piping like crazy. The reason why is because it wants to naturally draw ions into it, so much so that it will strip metal into solution. Now picture all the water in the world with all the chloride and other salt ions floating around, plants sucking that up, then you eating the plants. Also keep in mind that cells maintain their shape because of ion concentrations. So not only is chloride ubitiquitous in nature, but its necessary for life and cell structure/maintainence.

And last thing. Trying drinking double deionized water for an extended period of time. This water has no ions in it. This water will leach minerals from your body so fucking quick. That is why even reverse osmosis filters put these ions back into the water.

Why would you wanna cut chloride out anyway? Are you confusing it with chlorates, the shit they put in water to kill giardia and cryptosporidium? Because that's an entirely different molecule, the "chlorine" you put in your pool is not actually chlorine, but chlorates, an oxygenated molecule.
Green Fox - Wed, 26 Nov 2014 12:27:54 EST ID:ONOV2XnS No.75795 Ignore Report Quick Reply

Pool chlorinator is usually hypochlorites, being salts of hypochlorous acid, HClO. Halogen and sulfur chemistry still clings doggedly to fun archaic terms.
Graham Blunningpidge - Wed, 26 Nov 2014 14:20:15 EST ID:uGD5aNS6 No.75797 Ignore Report Quick Reply
My mistake, its been a while. Regardless still proves my point that it is not simply Chloride ions.

Cannabinoid research by Sophie Pedgechut - Wed, 29 Oct 2014 17:40:57 EST ID:R51h5b0N No.75632 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Is there anyone into cannabinoid research? I'm writing my BA thesis about medical uses of cannabinoids right now. I have trouble with finding some good paper about distribution of cannabinoid receptors in peripherial tissues and nervous system. I'm wondering whether you guys could recommend me something?
Fuck Clundlelure - Thu, 30 Oct 2014 10:57:50 EST ID:uGD5aNS6 No.75635 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Wikipedia search anandamide
Read the article, then scroll to the bottom and look at the sources. Best way to start
Walter Subberfit - Thu, 06 Nov 2014 17:55:47 EST ID:XHRod5ZS No.75667 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Look at the citations in the cannabinoid section of Rang and Dale;s pharmacology? Use pubmed/google scholar?
Cyril Tootwater - Tue, 25 Nov 2014 18:12:42 EST ID:gWSLB7OR No.75792 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Hey there,

this topic is not for BA thesis, save it for your MA or PhD.

Agent Lemon question by Isabella Fancocke - Tue, 25 Nov 2014 02:45:58 EST ID:egeyWXeT No.75787 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Hi /chem/, I have a noob question for you. I barely have a highschool knowledge of chemistry and google has already taken me as far as it can.
I'm doing an Agent Lemon DXM extraction and I was wondering why the Naphtha step is even necessary.
According to https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/dxm/faq/dxm_chemistry.shtml#toc.11.1.3 :
>Since it is now nonpolar it wants to go into a non polar solvent. Now you add a nonpolar solvent and shake hard. Free base goes into solution in solvent.
>Physically separate the layers. Now the DXM is in the nonpolar layer, mix that with the acid and shake well.
My questions are: If I'm adding in the citric acid anyway, why do I need to isolate the freebase in the nonpolar solvent layer at all? Can't I just add it to the ammonia-syrup solution? Will the DXM convert to Hydro-citrate without it?
It also says:
>This is so beautiful because the DXM is practically pulled across the oil-water interface by the hydrogen ion gradient.
I don't know what that means but I suspect it has something to do with the answer I seek.
Sidney Brusslewell - Tue, 25 Nov 2014 09:40:38 EST ID:+0Ci6TLP No.75788 Ignore Report Quick Reply
ammonia is a base, citric acid is an acid. combining bases with acids produces water and a salt. adding acid to the "ammonia-syrup solution" is just going to cause the acid to neutralize some ammonia.

Here's the quick and dirty:
DXM salt is in the syrup
DXM salt is dissolved in water
Add ammonia; now the water is basic
DXM salt is now just DXM
DXM does not want to be mixed with basic water, but it has nowhere to go
Add nonpolar solvent; this does not mix with water; depending on density the solvent will float on the water or the water will float on the solvent
Shake vigorously and then let settle into 2 layers
Now there is somewhere for the DXM to go; it leaves the basic water and enters the nonpolar solvent
You can now separate the junk you don't want (which is in the water layer) from the stuff you do want (in the nonpolar layer) since the two layers do not mix
Drain off the water layer (don't throw it away in case you fuck up)
Now that you got rid of the water and junk you don't want, you want to get rid of your nonpolar solvent but save your DXM
Comment too long. Click here to view the full text.
Isabella Fancocke - Tue, 25 Nov 2014 17:38:07 EST ID:egeyWXeT No.75790 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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>ammonia is a base, citric acid is an acid. combining bases with acids produces water and a salt.

>mfw the answer was right in front of my face the whole time
thanks a bunch, man
Isabella Fancocke - Tue, 25 Nov 2014 17:54:38 EST ID:egeyWXeT No.75791 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Hey, uh, while we're at it, do any of you know a safe, OTC brand of naphtha I could use? Everywhere I look on the net says to use V&M or Zippo, but neither of these are available in my area.
I'm thinking Ronsol might be my horse.

Solubility by Graham Pappergold - Thu, 20 Nov 2014 21:06:57 EST ID:28H249WQ No.75759 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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If I want to get pure xylene for a Mescaline extraction, could I take store bought mixture of Xylene, Acetone, and Methanol and exploit the solubility differences to siphon off the theoretically pure xylene layer?
Any help greatly appreciated /chem/
Thanks for your time
13 posts and 2 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
Green Fox - Mon, 24 Nov 2014 19:16:46 EST ID:ONOV2XnS No.75779 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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That's just an synthetic-organic centered viewpoint, and if you've only dreamed of making drugs then it makes sense to hold onto it. Any net change in a system associated with an enthalpic or entropic change is a reaction. An organic covalent bond is merely one type of energetic well.

Transitioning between crystal phases can involve rearrangement of covalent bonds, or what about complexation around a metal centre? Weaker forces than those which hold water together give us all the fine structure of the biological world. Certain photophysical transitions only show excitation to a different spin state, but they would still lead to discrete chemical species.

Dissolving salts in water generally has an even larger energy change associated with it than most organic ones. Furthermore, organic 'reactions', particularly when a catalyst is in place, involves the self-assembly of higher ordered structures, driven by weaker forces. Even the transient 'sticking' of a molecule to a fairly unreactive surface (known as physisorption) that occurs in chomatography or catalysis is a reaction, with measurable physical constants and energies.

Huge rant, but a lot of the rigid definitions taught in schools are outdated and useless, and gloss over the fantastic intricacies that actually make people pursue careers in this field.
Nigger Hoffingville - Mon, 24 Nov 2014 22:32:42 EST ID:mEgh7QsF No.75780 Ignore Report Quick Reply

gr8 m8 i r8 it 8/8!

well said
trypto - Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:28:37 EST ID:CWCt4/QH No.75782 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>and if you've only dreamed of making drugs then it makes sense to hold onto it.
Actually, I dream of making dyes, organic semiconductors, exotic polymers, and any sort of photochemistry. Low bandgaps excite me.

But I was just talking from a synth-orgo perspective, since that's the context on this thread. Like I said, "reaction" is short for "chemical reaction." If you want to talk about other types of reaction, then you specify.
>r what about complexation around a metal centre? Weaker forces than those which hold water together give us all the fine structure of the biological world
Notice I never specified "covalent" bonds. I just said bonds that aren't small. So metal complexation would be covered. Most hygrogen bonds would not be covered. Transitioning between crystal phases could be covered (say, j aggregates to H aggregates), but that's definitely a grey area.

It's not a rigid definition.

>but a lot of the rigid definitions taught in schools are outdated and useless
It's not rigid, and it's a very useful definition. Separating the "reaction" and the "workup" make communicating easier. That's the only reason I brought it up. So OP can google extraction/purification and probably get better results.
trypto - Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:38:22 EST ID:CWCt4/QH No.75784 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>Like I said, "reaction" is short for "chemical reaction." If you want to talk about other types of reaction, then you specify.
Whoops. I suppose you also disagree with that definition of "chemical reaction," so this is circular logic. Ignore that part. Actually, ignore the whole post.
Green Fox - Tue, 25 Nov 2014 16:57:54 EST ID:ONOV2XnS No.75789 Ignore Report Quick Reply

Right you are. In the same sense that a pure element like sodium metal is a "chemical element". Does that mean it is an element of chemicals, or a pure element with chemical properties? It depends on the context, but sodium has its own properties, crystal structure etc etc so it is of course a chemical!

Chemistry failure by Chemistry course - Thu, 13 Nov 2014 21:11:05 EST ID:vr6R2jlx No.75714 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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About to drop out of my chemistry course (more like a lab course).
I don't understand shit and they don't really teach you and use some many technical terms which I have no clue what they are about. Doesn't help that I just had 1 year chemistry during school.

We got some Mg(NO3)2 in (aq) form and we should reduce it with a bit distilled water.
And then we should put some droplets of NH3 solution into it and see what happens and write down the chemical equations.

1.First of all, what I don't understand is how you know what product will come out of that anyways.

2.Can you write down the whole chain of reactions in one big equation or do you have to break it down in 2?

I mean, we got some fill in blankets and they only asked for product out of Mg2+ cations with OH- hydroxide anions.
Well thanks to the internet I found out it will react to Magnesiumhydroxide.

1.How do we get from Mg(NO3)2 to Mg2+ cations and where do the Hydroxide anions come from?
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Chemistry course - Mon, 17 Nov 2014 12:03:49 EST ID:vr6R2jlx No.75746 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Oh, ok, but how do you I know that X reaction overweighs Y reaction?
What is the basis of that knowledge?
Martha Nucklestut - Mon, 17 Nov 2014 13:12:59 EST ID:72wOh3Tw No.75747 Ignore Report Quick Reply
NO3- and H+ would make HNO3 which is a strong acid. Strong acid means full dissociation, so the NO3 (nitrate) just stays as an anion.
Martha Nucklestut - Mon, 17 Nov 2014 13:16:12 EST ID:72wOh3Tw No.75748 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Also same thing for HCl, hydrochloric acid. A strong acid, full dissociation in water.

You learn these things through experience only, I guess.
Phyllis Ginkinwedge - Mon, 17 Nov 2014 23:39:34 EST ID:uGD5aNS6 No.75749 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Has to do with levels of reactivity between different ions. For instance, Cl- ions are incredibly weak in terms of being basic. A Cl- ion is really stable in that form and will not pull in H+ ions floating around, which is why when you dissolve HCl it tends to really break up almost 100% completely.
So you gotta have some knowledge of which ions are stronger at pulling ions of opposite charge to them and causing the reaction to procede, and in which direction, which makes chem a really hard subject to learn.
There are factors such as electronegativity, electrophilic and nucleophilic additions (in organic chemistry), ion dissociation, solubility. Actually it might help to look those concepts up to understand chem better and reactions.
Caroline Cridgeman - Thu, 20 Nov 2014 13:11:31 EST ID:gP/QtfwT No.75757 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Everything reacts with everything, just often at infinitesimal ratios. You'll have to refer to the K values (dissociation constants) to see how much they mingle in solution. There are charts for this, not just experience.

For example the Ka of HCl is ~10^7.
Ka = [H+]*[Cl-] / [HCl] (products over reactants)
This means that essentially all of the HCl breaks up in water.
The Kb of NH3 is ~1.8*10^-5. It is a weak base, but does make some OH- in solution.
1.8*10^-5= [NH4+]*[OH-] / [NH3]*[H2O] (the concentration of water in a solution = 1 so it is usually omitted)

OP you're going to really have to study up on pH, pOH, Ka, Kb, pKa, pKb. There are just a few things to memorize after which pre-organic chemistry is very simple algebra. You can does this!

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