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Changing Carbon to Silicon for new life by Frigate - Tue, 24 Jan 2017 17:41:29 EST ID:B2LKOBQC No.78499 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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So me and this girl on one of my classes had come up with substituting Carbon for Silicon that we could get a new form of life, but one of our teachers said it was unbalanced. What does she mean?
3 posts and 1 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
Press - Wed, 25 Jan 2017 16:24:58 EST ID:uHygcoWK No.78503 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Si has a lower electronegativity which is one way of explaining that Si- bonds with certain elements behave quite different that C- bonds. Alkanes are quite unrractive whereas silanes react rapidly with water for example.

Another example of sadly untrue hypothesis about xenobiology is arsenic using rna analogues. Sadly arsenic acid esters cant substitute phosphoric acid in neither rna nor energy transport systems because they hydrloyse a looot quicker. I think NASA pushed a study about arsenic using bacteria that cost some poor women her career

The abundance of elements throughout the cosmos is also related to how heavy an element is. Thus its less likely that thered be biologies using elements beyond the second period.
Or rather, even if its possible a lot more biology systems will use second period elements.

The only xenobiology hypothesis that i really like is flourine
Using peptides since theyd behave in a distinct folding pattern eventhough F is almost isosteric to hydrogen. With flourine polymers you could build alot of additional kinds of membranes but flourine is "really" electronegative and with its ole 19 which is just a bad number for being made by stars its unlikely to play a huge role. I could dig out a few papers on that but thatd be off topic

Pic related. My kinda xenobiology
Frigate - Wed, 25 Jan 2017 17:42:36 EST ID:B2LKOBQC No.78504 Ignore Report Quick Reply
But why tho? they have similar properties, and I'm asking why they don't work. Not because they normally bond with something else
Frigate - Wed, 25 Jan 2017 17:44:20 EST ID:B2LKOBQC No.78505 Ignore Report Quick Reply
But why tho? I never stated anything about their bonds. I meant they are similar. My main question was why it was unbalanced.
Charlotte Drablingspear - Fri, 27 Jan 2017 21:49:13 EST ID:klMiQ9iI No.78511 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I remember reading somewhere that scientists were able to genetically engineer a bacteria that was able to create silicon bonds, to demonstrate that silicon-based lifeforms are possible and could maybe be found somewhere else in the universe. However I do not believe that they got so far as to create a glucose molecule with silicon instead of carbons. That kind of science is probably decades or centuries away. The reaction you have there is "balanced" in the sense that there are equal numbers of each atom on both sides of the equation. I think your teacher was just trying to tell you that you are full of shit.
Esther Bublingstick - Tue, 31 Jan 2017 21:59:07 EST ID:FMRNgMnb No.78518 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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The electronegativity. Si forms sissy bonds compared to carbon. It's a harsh universe out there... lots of O2 and water. Without the strength and versitility of the carbon bond, silicon based lifeforms would get wrecked by the simplest forces of nature.

Anorganic Chem Q by Cedric Lightfield - Wed, 18 Jan 2017 06:14:04 EST ID:+xNTZBER No.78473 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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So me and my colleague are arguing about whether KOH or NaOH is stronger base. While in practice it is not important, I'd argue that theoretically it must be KOH, as the enthalpy of K+ is lower, therefore KOH will be more likely to dissociate. However, the colleague is buzzing around with a dubious Pkbn from chembuddy which states that pKbn values for NaOH and KOH are 0.2 and 0.5 respectively, indicating that NaOH would in fact be a stronger base (and LiOH the strongest). Why would that be? Pls explain. pic unrel
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Thu, 19 Jan 2017 23:37:12 EST ID:Req4jw5M No.78475 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Electron density is spread out in potassium compared to sodium. This is why potassium carbonate is slightly soluble in acetone compared to sodium and why you see cesium carbonate used in research papers.
The same holds true for hydroxides.
Charlotte Drablingspear - Fri, 27 Jan 2017 22:02:40 EST ID:klMiQ9iI No.78512 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Any difference between the two is likely very small, but I would have to say that NaOH is stronger because Na is less electronegative than K, so it is more willing to give up that OH group. Pure speculation tho
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Sat, 28 Jan 2017 01:26:18 EST ID:ViNIYyYK No.78513 Ignore Report Quick Reply
You are right but that's a product, not a reason. The question is WHY it is more electronegative than potassium and the answer is ironic radius trends.

Where my electrons @@@@@@@@@?
Eliza Grandwill - Sat, 28 Jan 2017 02:36:32 EST ID:vukMbHQH No.78515 Ignore Report Quick Reply

That logic makes no sense to me; I would expect Potassium to be more likely to give up the ghost due it its relatively large electron cloud. The distance of the periphery of the electron cloud to the center of the atoms nucleus should allow easier access to its valence electrons, no?

Which is why pure cesium reacts so violently in water in comparison to lithium, sodium, and potassium.

I guess what I'm saying is NaOH being stronger than KOH goes against my intuition.
Eliza Grandwill - Sat, 28 Jan 2017 02:41:50 EST ID:vukMbHQH No.78516 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Nvm, I gets it.

The ionic association of potassium is stronger than sodium with anions, so you would expect less dissociation as the alkali metals get heavier.

Introduction to /chem/ by Synapse - Wed, 17 Aug 2016 05:46:46 EST ID:rX48mQ3L No.78159 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Hello, I am a newcomer to this board but it seems cozy enough for me to stay here. It is a dream for me to make a home-lab one day, because univeristy labs (studying medicine) have restrictions and objections against experiments that I'm interested at.

It would be nice if you could tell more about your setups/projects/goals.

>also general current project thread
3 posts and 1 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Tue, 15 Nov 2016 01:09:12 EST ID:Req4jw5M No.78347 Ignore Report Quick Reply
both of these are true
Henry Billingbanks - Mon, 12 Dec 2016 06:50:00 EST ID:2mI+Zk9G No.78398 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Are you here because of the humble bundle?

Cause I'm thinking of getting a lab up after I get that workbench for christmas.

Thomas Cingerfield - Thu, 26 Jan 2017 01:45:25 EST ID:/1/rkG3K No.78506 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Fri, 27 Jan 2017 00:42:56 EST ID:zWHMkUyt No.78509 Ignore Report Quick Reply
breakabond - Sun, 05 Mar 2017 10:37:18 EST ID:LObRvGV/ No.78588 Ignore Report Quick Reply
just a test:
>fuckin tolerance

E=MC^2 question by Martin Crepperfuck - Thu, 22 Dec 2016 12:08:21 EST ID:E5ztys4h No.78408 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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So I was randomly thinking about Einsteins most popular contribution to physics, and I have a problem with it:

If E=MC^2, then how is it possible that a mass-less photon can carry any energy?

I expect there's probably a well established answer to this, but in trying to track it down I'm realizing a lot of this stuff is well above my reading level.
12 posts and 1 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Sun, 08 Jan 2017 01:04:56 EST ID:zRXgL70Z No.78460 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Good thread.

Also a good question by OP.

nb for answered question
Charles Huvinggold - Wed, 11 Jan 2017 12:00:39 EST ID:rybJ4K29 No.78462 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Hi babe, I just wonder if phen and trypt synth threads are still alive?

Also come visit us on psy every once in a while, you are a good man..
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Thu, 12 Jan 2017 02:03:23 EST ID:8NEuSnNe No.78465 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Thanks! Those threads have more or less died at this point. My experiences with psychedelics is on hiatus since I my consecutive ego deaths on like 750 LSD, 35mg 2-CE, 125mg 4-AcO-DMT, and other doses similar.

That shit actually scares me to the point where weed gives me intense spiritual flashbacks and really need to take a break. Times a changed, I guess. I'll be back soon, though.

Keep grooving in the meantime and ask any question whatsoever.
Rebecca Wemmerwot - Sun, 22 Jan 2017 09:04:53 EST ID:6+KMGshk No.78492 Ignore Report Quick Reply

lol oops
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Sun, 22 Jan 2017 23:00:43 EST ID:iygy/n6D No.78494 Ignore Report Quick Reply
damn where'd that response go to this post. i was gonna response to it too

Guy who wanted to mix two solids for X-Ray analysis by Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Fri, 20 Jan 2017 14:52:25 EST ID:jTCURNhV No.78483 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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I guess because of a certain news article, we can't discuss specific molecules like that here............ I suppose the molecule in question is attracting too much media attention so even on a small board such as this, it is unwise to do so?

Sorry anon for killing your thread for asking for specifics.

Where are the fucking units by breakabond !!D0XjIgKF - Fri, 13 Jan 2017 10:55:34 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78467 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Can someone tell me what the units here are?
(<-- image)

source: http://www.pharmpress.com/files/docs/Excipients7e_samplemonos(1).pdf
trypto - Fri, 13 Jan 2017 11:17:46 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78468 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Mass percent.

trypto - Fri, 13 Jan 2017 11:20:10 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78469 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Whoops. Actually, not mass percent since it's not multiplied by 100. Mass ratio?
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Sat, 14 Jan 2017 00:36:57 EST ID:YTE4hsRA No.78470 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I looked this shit up and it's g in ml. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/D-mannitol#section=2D-Structure

Strictly speaking, if I saw this in a research paper, I would think that it said 1 molecule of mannitol dissolves in x molecules of the solvent. This is very lazy of the people who made this.
breakabond !!D0XjIgKF - Sat, 14 Jan 2017 05:57:36 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78471 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Denatured alcohol by Martha Brookdale - Mon, 26 Dec 2016 15:26:13 EST ID:H7AhQjrZ No.78423 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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I have this product (see image), and I evaporated a few drops on a clean mirror and it left a noticeable residue.

In the SDS (https://www.korellis.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Alcohol-Denatured.pdf) it only lists methanol and ethanol as components, so what is the residue left behind, and how harmful would it be to consume?
4 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
Phoebe Sirrydock - Mon, 02 Jan 2017 17:58:01 EST ID:6+KMGshk No.78434 Ignore Report Quick Reply
very, there is typically benzene in these products (generally not listed). Benzene is incredibly cancerous. Go save up your allowance and buy some actual booze.
Oliver Blatherson - Tue, 03 Jan 2017 19:02:38 EST ID:RKOZdJ0v No.78442 Ignore Report Quick Reply
nobody was talking about drinking it haha
Shitting Mimmlefirk - Thu, 05 Jan 2017 12:57:20 EST ID:kquaKHd6 No.78445 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Looking @ page 3, subsection 3 of that msds:

Ethanol concentration is 30-50%
Methanol concentrate is 40-60%

So, the ethanol/methanol mixture will make up between 110% and 70% of what's in that can. The other 30%? Prolly shit from wood when they made this 'wood alcohol'
Shitting Mimmlefirk - Thu, 05 Jan 2017 13:07:13 EST ID:kquaKHd6 No.78446 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Honestly, it's probably exactly the sort of thing that you don't want to go into your body. As in, Exactly. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. Everything that's bad except for biologically derived venoms.
Martha Nicklewill - Thu, 12 Jan 2017 23:07:52 EST ID:DZQn4yU5 No.78466 Ignore Report Quick Reply
They do this on purpose to make money from alcohol tax.

Pretty sure it's not listed on the MSDS and it distills over at similair temps.

DIY Batteries by Nicholas Wibbleson - Tue, 10 Jan 2017 11:48:31 EST ID:32cXOz64 No.78461 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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sup /chem/,

Looking for some decent DIY battery ideas. Doesn't have to be too compact, but I would like for it to fit on a desk perhaps and be able to shit out roughly 1.5-3.5V and maybe max ~25mA.

I've tried my had at a few types (pic related: quick dirty Earth battery with copper and zinc cathode/anodes) including earth (using several combos of cath/anodes), zinc-air, Al-air, and am setting up to create a MnO2+Alum/graphite cell just to test.

Question: What are some decent DIY battery builds? I'm not asking for any steps, simply just metal combos and whatever medium suites said combo. The charge density isn't all that important as it's to be expected to need to be recharged/reloaded. I'm certain with another cathode/anode in the Earth Battery pictured and a simple joule thief, I could squeeze out around 1.5V (haven't checked the amps yet). The idea here is just to get more ideas for DIY batteries and perhaps ideas for better performance. I'm aware of galvanic series and electrical potential, so I believe this thread is best suited for discussion and possibly personal experience.

trypto - Wed, 11 Jan 2017 21:28:31 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78463 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I think some type of lead-acid battery would be best. I don't have any experience with it, but it sounds like a cool project.

Solubility by Nell Dannerworth - Tue, 03 Jan 2017 12:29:11 EST ID:2qfcsxJx No.78437 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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I recently did some undergraduate research with a professor in organic synthesis and was curious about what the factors for solubility are. I was under the impression that it was all about size and polarity, but i'm getting conflicting results. I had synthesized several molecules which had phenyl groups. Since this was some discovery chemistry, I made "copies" of these molecules but with substitutions at the para positions of the aromatic ring in order to increase reactivity through electron withdrawing effects (para-nitro substitution) or decrease reactivity through electron donating effects (para-methoxy substitution).

What I noticed was that my molecule which had two phenyl rings with para-substituted nitro groups was more polar than the same molecule with no substitution (least polar) and that with the para-methoxy (middle polarity), but it had the worst solubility of the three.

In fact, the one with the unsubstituted aromatic rings was the most soluble in methanol, despite being the least polar.

What factors are at play here? the nitro compound basically only dissolved decently in DCM, which made working with it incredibly frustrating. Yet slightly more or less polar solvents didn't or barely worked to dissolve it. I'd like to know what factors to consider for the next time I work in a lab so I can more easily predict some of the properties of the molecules I'll be synthesizing.
trypto - Tue, 03 Jan 2017 16:07:49 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78438 Ignore Report Quick Reply
The Nitro-substituted molecules probably have more lattice energy (solute-solute interactions), making it more difficult for the methanol to get in there. Think about how the molecules could potentially crystalize.

If you just have phenyl groups on something else uninteresting, there's not much opportunity. Maybe some pi-stacking. Wheras with the nitro group, you might have some strong H-Bonding going on.


>I'd like to know what factors to consider for the next time I work in a lab so I can more easily predict some of the properties of the molecules I'll be synthesizing.

Most of the time, just go off polarity and like-attracts-like. Then try out different solvents. Unless you're doing QM simulations, this is the best way. And even then, your empirical results will come in faster.
Shitting Mimmlefirk - Thu, 05 Jan 2017 12:50:10 EST ID:kquaKHd6 No.78444 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Solubility is a function of associative energy. If you can keep the different types of energies straight, you can think of them as vectors (I think), and if two compounds wind up next to each other on the plot then they're miscible/soluble.

Hansen is newer and more sophisticated than Hildebrand I believe
Esther Sarringlane - Fri, 06 Jan 2017 13:36:53 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78449 Ignore Report Quick Reply
So if we have all these equations for solubility, how hard is it to throw it all into a program where you draw any molecule and find out what it's soluble in (and how soluble).
trypto - Sat, 07 Jan 2017 00:04:32 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78457 Ignore Report Quick Reply
It's faster to simply use a rule of thumb, and try 3-6 of the common lab solvents before you find the best solvent (and how soluble it is).

If you really wanted to do it computationally, then you'd need a great graphics card, and a workflow for DFT calculations. There's a handful of programs used for this, and they all have a high learning curve. Spartan is probably the easiest, though it's closed source and expensive. I don't know the exact steps needed.

In general, it's pretty hard.
trypto - Sat, 07 Jan 2017 00:09:24 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78458 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Actually, Amazon ec2 would be better than a good graphics card. But you'd still want a decent card for when you're leanring.

Climate Metric by Jack Sopperham - Sun, 01 Jan 2017 23:14:21 EST ID:VjvGmScF No.78431 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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Imagine you have a big list of cities and wanted to concisely get an idea of what the weather is like over there.
If conciseness and speed wasn't a problem, you could look at a graph like that for each city, but that's not feasible.

So what metrics would you need to accurately capture the climate of that area? Less is better, so all I can think of is: average lowest temp, average highest temp.
Any other ideas?
7 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
Ernest Gagglehood - Fri, 06 Jan 2017 20:13:59 EST ID:sGpcPJT1 No.78452 Ignore Report Quick Reply
This is mostly me signalling my relevant degrees, but climates is long-term af weather be short-term. People already measure dat shit mane.
Angus Billingbury - Fri, 06 Jan 2017 22:28:18 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78454 Ignore Report Quick Reply
If you were to go about building a "climate score" for every city such that you could simply compare based on temperature alone, how would you do it?!?!?>
Edward Blussledon - Sat, 07 Jan 2017 23:36:23 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78459 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Barnaby Samblewell - Thu, 12 Jan 2017 00:52:43 EST ID:Q+12w2DB No.78464 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>how do i climate

breakabond !!D0XjIgKF - Sat, 21 Jan 2017 01:20:39 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78485 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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tada: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6ppen_climate_classification

lifespan by Priscilla Drucklemidge - Sat, 24 Dec 2016 05:44:01 EST ID:RKOZdJ0v No.78416 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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sorry for the stupid question, chemistry is def my weakest area

a search tells me that PG USP/EP has a shelf life of two years when stored below 40°C (104°F) in closed containers away from sources of ultraviolet (UV) light.
should i only make enough solution to last a couple years? how long can refrigeration extend this?
Walter Bullermit - Sun, 25 Dec 2016 11:46:47 EST ID:Hzvahzwj No.78420 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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im assuming that youre using food grade proplyglycol

the shelf life is a legal thing. in my country carbonated water has a declared shelf life.
as long as you store the PG in a somewhat airtight bottle away from heat and intense sunlight, itll be fine.

but depending on what kind of solution youre talking about it might be a good idea to only make it depending on your on usage. nicotine does oxidize a bit, eventhough that in my experience the slight oxidation improves taste of e cig juice.

refrigeration would extend the time period theoretically if the solution is stored in an air tight bottle. besides the legal bullshit this might give a rough estimate of extrapolated shelf life https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q10_(temperature_coefficient)
but that shit quite often fails in practical application as far as ive seen.
Emma Fanbanks - Sun, 25 Dec 2016 12:53:48 EST ID:G2GUCRy9 No.78421 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Why would you need more than a couple of years worth of any kind of solution?
John Semmerforth - Mon, 26 Dec 2016 04:09:20 EST ID:RKOZdJ0v No.78422 Ignore Report Quick Reply

i'm getting a quantity of a research chemical large enough to outlive its legal status (presumably)
i know i can just... keep them not mixed, but i wanted to know if mixing would make the situation worse or not
David Noblingchene - Thu, 29 Dec 2016 00:56:04 EST ID:Fe+cUsBQ No.78426 Ignore Report Quick Reply
You will not regret keeping your entire stash out of solution. Isn't that enough?
Clara Dablingmick - Thu, 29 Dec 2016 18:26:59 EST ID:RKOZdJ0v No.78428 Ignore Report Quick Reply
it is! just curious!

Mescaline Creation by Bombastus !!HToBa9dh - Fri, 21 Aug 2015 17:13:58 EST ID:4ppVjZXo No.76958 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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I just proposed this on /psy/ so let's see what you people think.

I do have an add-on, though. L-Tyrosine can be decarboxylated to Tyramine so you don't have to get a shitload of cheese to extract. From there, you can just brominate it selectively in basic conditions to brominate the carbons meta to the hydroxide. A simple LG > Hydroxide reaction later, you'll have 2,3,4 tri-hydroxyl(aminoethyl)benzene.

One simple reflux with 4eq of Methyliodide should yield mescaline in 95%+ yields. What do you think, /chem/?
76 posts and 16 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
Alice Fuckinggold - Sat, 28 May 2016 09:46:02 EST ID:FN2WDMDT No.77921 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>There has been a misunderstanding of hydrolysis to lysergic acid that I just discovered myself last night. I was looking at a joint paper by Opava and Galena published in 2000 that does an enzymatic hydrolysis using microbes, but as I read the paper they proceeded to perform the hydrolysis by normal KOH means. I noticed that the hydrolysis was very mild and low yielding and did not use microbes so I was wondering what was going on. But then I saw that what they were doing was performing hydrolysis on ergotamine to lysergamide (ergine) and then stop and continue the rest of the hydrolysis by enzymatic means. So I went and revisited all the prior ergot hydrolysis' and it occurred to me that hydrolysis of ergopeptines is actually a 2-step process. When you perform a hydrolysis you are actually performing a hydrolysis of the ergopeptine to a lysergic amide (LSA) and then after you have LSA you perform a hydrolysis to lysergic acid. This has never really been pointed out because it is all the same procedure, but it is actually important to note when researching different hydrolysis'. For example, an hydrolysis on LSA's extracted straight from HBWR seeds does not have to be as harsh as one performed on ergotamine which has to first undergo hydrolysis to LSA and THEN to lysergic acid. That is why some hydrolysis' you come across can be weaker or stronger. For example, the Galena/Opava hydrolysis was performed at %4 KOH in ethanol for 2 hours (only acid hydrolysis actually requires water as a solvent). This is in contradiction to Smith and Tinnis in the 1930's who declared that lysergic acid cannot be achieved below a %7 KOH content as it is too mild. But Galena/Opava was just performing hydrolysis on ergotamine to LSA, not fully to lysergic acid, so they could do it under milder conditions. And also what wasn't known in the 1930's with regards to hydrolysis of ergopeptines is that heat and time can make up for milder basic conditions. Hence Shulgin's very mild hydrolysis performed just in water at 75c with a mere %6.7 KOH content but done over 4 hours. So basically hydrolysis of ergopeptines is a 2-step process and depending on how many of those 2-steps you need to ac…
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Sophie Honeyfoot - Sat, 09 Jul 2016 03:59:45 EST ID:UX5Tgvrg No.78075 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I take 1mg doses like yearly lol
Nell Gecklecocke - Fri, 23 Dec 2016 23:17:17 EST ID:DPjhXpIm No.78415 Ignore Report Quick Reply
A good old methylamination with benzaldehyde then a reduction for some trimethoxyamphetamine, a 1000 percent increse in potentcy.
Schepperschop - Sat, 24 Dec 2016 13:33:31 EST ID:xTIigKo1 No.78417 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Find the cactus>>Eat the cactus
press - Sun, 25 Dec 2016 11:24:27 EST ID:Hzvahzwj No.78419 Ignore Report Quick Reply
i think you mean a henry condensation with a following reduction?

tfw calmus oil is expenis as fuck and you cant just go via reductive amination for tma2

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