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In August 1938, General Franz Halder, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, General Erwin von Witzleben, Lieutenant Hans Oster, Hjalmar Schacht, Carl Goerdeler, State Secretary Ernst von Weizsäcker, his juniors Adam von Trott zu Solz and Hans-Bernd von Haeften, and senior civil servants, including Hans Bernd Gisevius, a former assistant secretary in the Interior Ministry, and Count Peter Yorck von Wartenburg from the Reich Price Commissioner’s office were all involved in a plot to depose Hitler in a coup, and went as far as discussing whether Hitler should merely be imprisoned or assassinated.
They weren’t so much opposed to the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia that Hitler had in mind just they believed his plan to invade would lead to war with Britain and France. Goring’s intervention, persuading the British, French and Italians (and Hitler) to confer in Munich, bringing about the annexation of the Sudetenland, prevented Hitler marching into Czechoslovakia and the coup plan being put to the test.
Following the Polish success, Halder and co. revived the plan in November 1939, when Herr Nothingness turned his attention west, planning to secure the territory up to the channel before Britain and France were fully rearmed. Reputedly for a time Halder carried a loaded a revolver, in case the opportunity should present itself.
Opposition to the Nazis from ordinary people like Elser is always refreshing to discover and read about. The Edelweiss Pirates are another case in point; in particular the Ehrenfeld Group who, presumably modelling themselves on the actions of the Red Front of their parents’ generation, would give any Hitler Youth found in their territory in Cologne, a good kicking similarly the Muten Group in Leipzig who were explicitly linked to the KPD (remnants).
The White Rose are among the most famous opponents to the regime. Their largely non-sectarian, and pacifist humanitarian condemnation of Nazism has resulted in them probably having been valorised by the most diverse range of people.
Like members of the White Rose, also tried by Roland Freisler were Otto and Elise Hampel who were posthumously made famous by Hans Fallada in his novel ‘Everyman Dies Alone’ as Otto and Anna Quangel