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Civilization of the Month by Charlemagne !PXhMv3keyc - Tue, 09 Jan 2018 16:21:24 EST ID:7moSACzs No.57339 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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In preparation for going back to school (and to hopefully bolster some discussion on this nice but very slow board) I'm gonna try this thread format. Each month, assuming I don't get lazy and drop this, I'm gonna post a big thing about a civilization, culture, or political entity. I'm gonna try to avoid obvious topics like Egypt or Rome, and focus on stuff people may not have heard of as much. In an ideal world you guys will join in and discuss the peoples and cultures herein, suggest new topics, or correct me if and when I mess up.

That said, it seems fair to me to start with the beginning. This month's Civilization of the Month is Sumer.

"Sumer" as a name comes to us from their Akkadian neighbors/occasional rulers, who called them Shumer. The Sumerians called themselves "ùĝ saĝ gíg ga", meaning "The black-headed people", a name we learned from the cuneiform tablets they wrote on. Unfortunately, we do not actually know what "Shumer" means; when looking (or, more appropriately, glancing) into it, I pretty much just found academic flamewars.

The Sumerian people seem to have been in the area of modern day Iraq since at least 6500 BC, and continued to do their thing until the second millennium BC. Then they were conquered by the Amorites, who in turn were conquered by the Assyrians. However, their cultural impression was lasting, and Assyrian kings would continue to refer to themselves as "King of Sumer and Akkad" for centuries.

The earliest archaeological site we have for the area is called Tell el-'Oueli. A tell, from Arabic tal, meaning hill or mound, is a giant pile of trash from generations of people living on the same spot. This site consists of two thousand years of the Ubaid period (6500-4000 BC), and is characterized by the style of clay painted pottery, unwalled villages of mud brick houses, and tools (mainly sickles) made of clay usually, though occasionally stone or metal. During this time irrigated agriculture, use of the plow, and sailing were developed, and an egalitarian society became more stratified as a noble chieftain class developed as communities became much bigger than your standard village.

Eventually, pottery became produced more efficiently and trade flourished along the rivers of the Fertile Crescent, which led to the rise of the first cities. This period, named Uruk for the biggest one of the time, lasted from 4100 BC to 2900 BC. Uruk was created when two Ubaid villages grew into each other, and during this period became the most populated city in the world, surpassing 50k inhabitants. Cities during this period were centered around a large temple (two in Uruk's case, at the centers of the towns it grew from) and were ruled theocratically by priest-kings (called ensi). Slavery begins to see heavy use.

In 2900 BC we enter the early dynastic period (2900-2270 BC). Around the beginning of this time the wall around Uruk was built, spanning 9km. We see a split from the priest-king system to a relatively secular ruler (still claiming divine right to rule, as kings will), and a council of elder priests. In 2700 writing began to form out of pictographs, and things like clay tokens were used in accounting. At first, cities were separate entities that can't really project force terribly far. However, any towns around a big city were obviously going to have a hard time, and we actually see towns outright disappear as the cities absorb their populations. Around 2500 BC a king from the city of Lagash named Eannatum conquered the area we now think of as Sumer, creating one of the first empires. However, it fell apart after his death. Two centuries later a king named Lugal-zage-si did something similar, and reigned for fifteen years or so until the Akkadians conquered Sumer.

In 2270, the son of a cup-bearer for a Sumerian king (a social position of high standing and trust, I'll note) named Sargon rose to power, conquered Lugal-zage-di's realm, and led him to his hometown of Akkad in stocks. He went on to carve out an empire stretching nearly from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. His empire would last until 2147, when a nomadic tribe called the Guti overran the place to a degree that the infrastructure couldn't handle. The empire collapsed, and minor city-states made their return.

From Lagash again rose a Sumerian king, Gudea, who enjoyed a small renaissance of sorts after he reconquered Sumer in his sixth year and established healthy trade routes throughout Mesopotamia. Statues of Gudea abound, and we can note a change over the course of his reign from cheap limestone to expensive and foreign diorite, featuring inscriptions about trade, rule and religion. The arts flourished (sculptures of Gudea are numerous, and those are just the ones that survived), and contact with ancient India for trade and minor colonization is mentioned. The site of Goa followed field measurements of the Sumerian culture rather than those of the native Indian cultures surrounding them. He ruled for twenty years (2144-2124 BC).

Following this, the third dynasty of Ur rose to regional power and lasted about a century. The six kings in this time extended influence (not outright power, mind you) all the way to the Mediterranean, centralized agriculture and the textile industry, and produced the oldest known code of law: the Code of Ur-Nammu. Around the turn of the second millennium BC an invasion from neighboring Elam cast down the dynasty, paving the way for the rise of the Assyrian Empire.

It's worth noting that in the final era of Sumer's history, the salinity of the soil was affecting the region's economic capacity. In the time surrounding the Ur III dynasty, the population was estimated to have more than halved itself, despite a switch from wheat to barley, a more salt-resistant grain. I suspect this may also be what caused or allowed the Ur III dynasty to centralize as much as they apparently did (but that's my thought and not something you should go repeating as fact). This also lead to the spread of Akkadian as a common language, while Sumerian became one used for administrative and literary use, showing the weakening of cultural influence. Paul Kriwaczek posits in his book Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization that when faced with growing populations, the leaders of Sumerian cities may have attempted to circumvent the system of fallowing fields in an attempt to increase productivity, which would have only made the soil worse in the already hungry times following.
Charlemagne !PXhMv3keyc - Tue, 09 Jan 2018 16:24:05 EST ID:7moSACzs No.57340 Ignore Report Quick Reply
The Sumerians were also fantastic innovators, not just in the creation of the city as we know it but in many other respects as well. The obvious accomplishments are the wheel and writing, but this also includes sexigesimal mathematics, i.e. math based around multiples of six. This we still use today for our basic units of time, as well as the 360 degree circle.
The invention of writing cannot be understated. This began initially as a way to record pragmatic things like the amount of grain or livestock one had, but it quickly became much more. The first known written narrative fictional story, the epic of Gilgamesh, comes to us from the Sumerians, a tale of adventure, loss and eventual acceptance of death. Beyond that, we have a vast array of written information from the Sumerians, from deeds to land, to recipes for food and beer to philosophical debates and even jokes ("Something which has never occurred since time immemorial; a young woman did not fart in her husband's lap.").

The Sumerian mindset for much of their history seems to have been one of boundless experimentation with little regard for "the old ways". Unlike Egypt, which spent monumental resources attempting to make structures that would last forever, Sumer was constantly building up, tearing down and rebuilding everything in their environment as they found better ways to go about their lives. The image we have of their culture is an exceedingly open and frank one, compared to ours. In a time when the concept of hygiene was basic at best, living in a city had a high attrition rate. Cramming 50,000 people and their livestock into a small space was not conducive to good health. Thus, a heavy focus in Sumerian culture is put on booze and sex. One because it was literally the only safe thing to drink, and made you feel pretty good as well, and the other because keeping the birth rate up was a serious concern, and made you feel pretty good as well. In the epic of Gilgamesh, the feral demigod Enkidu is civilized by having sex with a sacred temple prostitute named Shamhat for a week straight. These were not a prudish people.

The typical structure of a Sumerian city seems to be thus: At the top, the priest-king, called an ensi or lugal (there's debate over whether this is a regional difference or if lugal denotes kingship over multiple cities), along with a council of religious elder priests. The religious authority of the kings seem to dwindle somewhat over time, but that's a relative dwindling; kings were very much considered to have a divine quality, and the basis of Sumerian religion held that the gods delivered kingship to the people to raise them out of chaos. So there's your typical state-mandated raison d'etre for the monarchy. Below this there was a noble class consisting of government officials, wealthy merchants and large-scale landowners, then farmers and producers of goods like pots and tools, and finally slaves and criminals.
Sumerian cities were often not unified, and indeed seem to have functioned similarly to the Hellenic city-states of Ancient Greece. They often squabbled with their neighbors, but would form empires or coalitions when threatened from outside, and were overall proud of their shared culture. Due to centuries of near-unending warring with each other, they made leaps and bounds in military technology along with their other pursuits. From the Sumerians we have use of chariots, spear block formations, and basic siege tactics. It's thought that they had professional soldiers in use, who were equipped with copper helmets.
Women's role in Sumerian society was as always something of a short stick, but not as bad as in later Mesopotamian societies. While the typical structures of familial marriage and procreation applied, Sumerian women could own property, take part in the justice system, become priestesses, run businesses, become scribes and even divorce their husbands (with good reason).

Have some music from a few thousand years ago:

This guy, Peter Pringle, seems to specialize in recreating ancient instruments. He's singing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh (which would indeed have been sung and performed), but the music he's playing seems to be out of his own head. Still worth a listen.

I kinda feel Sumer falls into the area of "obvious topics" as I put it in the beginning, but I think their place is warranted. Contenders for early civs are few. Besides Egypt, you have ancient China, which is quite the beast to tackle (and if I do China it will be by individual era, make no mistake), and the Indus Valley civilization, about which basically everything is murky and up for debate. The Sumerian influence on the world is far reaching. Cuneiform lasted up until the first century AD; we still use their system of time; Capricorn's basic imagery, the half goat, half fish chimera, comes to us from the Sumerian river god Enki. These guys set up the basic system for how our lives would work for the next five thousand years up until today. I figure the least I can do is start my dumb thread with 'em.
Molly Buvingspear - Fri, 12 Jan 2018 01:30:07 EST ID:Io2ZBGXP No.57341 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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I've always struggled with the early history of Mesopotamia. It's always been a melange of Babylon and the stuff that came before. The Assyrians are separate but only because everyone goes out of their way to note that they were the bad guys. In trying to add some framing to 6000 years of Mesopotamian history, I traced the religious evolution and the name Marduk jumped out at me. Suddenly I was back in high school watching this episode of Sealab 2021. Maybe you'll get a kick out of this.
Charlemagne !PXhMv3keyc - Fri, 12 Jan 2018 22:12:27 EST ID:7moSACzs No.57342 Ignore Report Quick Reply
What I've generally found is that the cultures are heavily intertwined. Urban life seems to have spread memetically from Uruk to the rest of Mesopotamia and with it, the general way of doing things followed. Akkad and Sumer are almost always spoken in the same breath by both academics and contemporary documents; it's just that Akkadian won out in the end due to being a Semitic language related to its neighbors, the decline of Sumerian populations and the simplification of cuneiform's structure. Sumerian cuneiform is this ridiculous mixture of phonetic signs, signs for specific words a la Chinese, determinatives put at the end of words to apply context and puns and homophones of all these mixed together. It's a bitch to learn, then and now. Other cultures took cuneiform as a concept and liked it, but said "fuck that" to the hodge-podge of Sumerian and massively simplified it for ease of use.

As for the Assyrians, it's pretty easy to make them out as the bad guys when that was their entire public image, and later cultures such as the Persians, who immediately followed them in the Mesopotamian sphere, took great efforts to show that they weren't as brutal as their predecessors. So between them, the Assyrians' own efforts and writings by contemporary people going "wow fuck those guys they slaughtered three cities last week", the stigma is pretty strong.

Finally, fuck yeah Sealab. This has been a bit of a rant, I blame the Citradelic.
Oliver Bardwell - Wed, 17 Jan 2018 08:36:52 EST ID:dUHNnmI0 No.57345 Ignore Report Quick Reply
good stuff OP i read it all. keep it coming
Charlemagne !PXhMv3keyc - Thu, 18 Jan 2018 18:56:47 EST ID:7moSACzs No.57346 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Thanks! Nice to hear I'm not shouting into the void. Have any suggestions for topics?
Alice Mundletug - Fri, 19 Jan 2018 22:00:38 EST ID:OONS0as+ No.57347 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I think Anatolia and East Africa are chronically overlooked.
Beatrice Wozzleridge - Sat, 20 Jan 2018 12:33:34 EST ID:dUHNnmI0 No.57348 Ignore Report Quick Reply
id like to know more about eastern europe before the medieval times
David Surrymedge - Sat, 20 Jan 2018 14:18:10 EST ID:KEKcaEjd No.57349 Ignore Report Quick Reply
It got invaded a bunch.
Eliza Digglesutch - Sat, 20 Jan 2018 14:37:15 EST ID:R5H6VHdB No.57350 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Phoenicia plz
Barnaby Clemmlepadge - Sat, 20 Jan 2018 23:03:31 EST ID:rbK+gS1r No.57351 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Well, they didn't know how to write and/or didn't leave behind pictogrammical records on lasting materials so no one knows. IIRC all written sources on the Slavic cultures were made by either invading Vikings or invading Christians.

Kind of ironic, even the Aboriginals left more traces of their cultures.
Charlemagne !PXhMv3keyc - Wed, 24 Jan 2018 14:24:16 EST ID:7moSACzs No.57354 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I may mess with East Africa if I can find a thread to follow. The Islamic kingdoms of West Africa could be a good one too. Anatolia could have something in the future, but I don't wanna hang out in the Near/Mid East two months in a row.

This could certainly be something, since it's a massive blind spot in my knowledge and I'm always looking to fill those in.

Phoenicia is good. Plus, I could sneak Carthage in...

This is all I know about medieval eastern europeans, but I think it's pretty cool:
scumfuc - Thu, 25 Jan 2018 23:12:28 EST ID:zPMk1XQv No.57355 Ignore Report Quick Reply
The Missisippian Culture would be fun, or maybe Kanem-Bornu.

Loved the thread, btw. Sumer is my jam.
Martha Trotford - Wed, 31 Jan 2018 08:11:28 EST ID:kpuK6LbR No.57357 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Charlemagne !PXhMv3keyc - Sun, 18 Feb 2018 22:55:24 EST ID:RBbEukYB No.57383 Ignore Report Quick Reply
bruvs I'll get on this in a minute, I been movin

I ain't forgot a damn thing, I assure you
Edwin Worthingford - Mon, 19 Feb 2018 10:31:36 EST ID:47c8tE2v No.57384 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I kept the faith, Chuck. Looking forward to the Minoans or the Shang Dynasty or whatever.
Frederick Blobblewill - Mon, 19 Feb 2018 10:32:43 EST ID:vZXg7z/l No.57385 Ignore Report Quick Reply
ah sumeria, the civilization that started it all
Alice Dankinshaw - Tue, 20 Feb 2018 22:00:49 EST ID:QXkOojeI No.57390 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Charlemagne !PXhMv3keyc - Wed, 28 Feb 2018 12:48:42 EST ID:RBbEukYB No.57392 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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It's been a long month, and I didn't mean to sleep on this as much as I have been. February's Civilization of the Month is Phoenicia.

Phoenicia is, as it usually happens, not what the people actually called themselves. They were a Semitic culture who referred to themselves in writing as "kn'n", which ties to their roots as a spoke in the umbrella culture of the Canaanites. As a seafaring people, the Phoenicians colonized the Mediterranean coast extensively, and while kn'n eventually became a word referring to their ancestral homeland (in what is today largely Lebanon), we still have reference to the North African post-Carthaginians calling themselves "chanani" centuries later in Late Antiquity.
"Phoenicia", meanwhile, comes down to us to the Greeks, who gave us a lot of ancient names due to writing their mouthy little asses off about everyone, refers to the particular shade of purple dye that the Phoenicians made their riches from trading. The Romans, shameless Hellaboos that they were, took this in stride and called them "Poeni", which is where we get Punic in reference to the Carthaginian wars.
The story of the Phoenicians is one typically told by others. Though famed for their alphabet, which became the backbone of the Western literary tradition, their writings were almost entirely done on papyrus, which has sadly not withstood the test of time. Still, they were apparently so known for their use of papyrus that the Phoenician city of Byblos became the Greek word for paper, and then for books as a whole. But because of this lack of voice on their part, and because they were not a great imperialist land power like their neighbors, the Phoenicians often seem to sit on the sidelines of the typical view of ancient history.
The first mention of the Canaanite peoples is an inscribed statue from the 16th century BC of an Akkadian king named Idrimi, which describes a war in which he is forced to leave his land, makes a treaty in Canaan with a king of Umman-Manda (some form of steppe nomad, the Akkadian term literally translates to "the horde from who-knows-where")and returns with an army to claim his land from the Hittites. After that, the area falls under Egyptian hegemony for the rest of the Old Kingdom, which is great for us because they wrote quite a bit.
The timeline we have is such: Out of the murk of prehistory, the Sumerian idea of urbanization spread across Mesopotamia. This took root in Jericho, which had been a sizeable town since the Neolithic period, as well as in other coastal Canaanite settlements such as Byblos, Sidon and Tyre. It's difficult to put an exact number on the highly semantic difference between these things becoming cities out of large towns, but soon after the Akkadian Empire, and more importantly for Canaan, the Egyptian Old Kingdom collapsed in the 22nd century BC, the insane Rube Goldberg device that was the Early Bronze Age Collapse struck the entirety of Mesopotamia, and everyone went back to the fields for a while.
Eventually urban life resurfaced, and the Canaanite region in particular began to sprout city-states everywhere, strengthening in Egypt's decline, to the point that the Hyksos, who are now believed to belong to the Canaanite culture, actually ruled the Delta for long enough to be counted among the pharaonic dynasties (number fifteen, if you're curious) until they were given the boot a century later in the 16th century BC. At this point Egypt ceases languishing in its Intermediate Periods and Middle Kingdom dynasties, and the New Kingdom is established.
In 1460 BC, if Egyptian timekeeping records are to be believed, Thutmose III, the "Napoleon of Egypt", conquered essentially all of Canaan at the age of 21. This was a huge deal for Egypt, which was a river society and a Mediterranean superpower in a land without trees, and desperately needed the cedar from the lush Levantine forests. Canaan would remain so until the reign of Amenhotep (1386-1349 BC), during which time the Hittites in the north chipped away at the Canaanite territories, taking advantage of the strife caused by the emergence of transient Habiru populations (a barely understood nomadic social/cultural class that seems to have done little besides attack cities and make people angry. They're a complicated bunch, and a fun wikipedia article to look up). This landgrabbing was only exacerbated during the reign of Akhenaten, Amenhotep III's successor, who instigated radical religious and social reform within Egypt which resulted in great internal strife, giving the Hittites further incentive to continue pecking at Canaan. This conflict would be mitigated by the rise of the Middle Assyrian Empire, which would expand throughout Mesopotamia throughout the next three centuries, including most of Canaan.
Faced with this new player in the geopolitical game, Egypt and the Hittites made peace, until the second great Rube Goldberg device, the fun one, with the Sea People, arrived in the form of the Bronze Age Collapse (c1200-1150BC). Empires splintered, cities burned, and the non-coastal parts of Canaan were seized by the Arameans, who then spread their language to their new subjects. I've been looking for a good place to make the narrative switch from the Canaanites to the name the Greeks would coin for them, and I think this is it. Canaan is dead, long live Phoinikos.
For the next four hundred years, in the absence of a large player to boss them around, the Phoenicians would do what they'd already been doing, but without a tithe on their backs: get rich using boats. From Tyre, purple dye made of an ointment painstakingly collected from local snails was made. This, along with cedar lumber, wine, glass, textiles, slaves and pottery made Phoenicia a potent mercantile entity along the Mediterranean. From Greece to Egypt, and all the stops in between, Phoenicia stuffed its pockets. This, combined with the adventurer's spirit that seems to naturally accompany a seaborne life, led the people to expand.
Soon, Phoenician colonies began to freckle the Mediterranean coast (moreso than they had before the collapse), leading to even more profit: silver from Sardinia and Iberia, more dye in Mogador in what's now Morocco. Carthage was established in 814BC as a trading outpost, but as a city on the tip of the clinching of the Med between Africa and Italy, became strategically essential, as did the colony on Sicily across the way. All of this was helped by their system of writing, first seen in the tenth century BC, which evolved at first from the hieratic script used in nonreligious Egyptian affairs. Stripped of archaic and culture-bound pictographic meanings, each symbol was assigned a unique sound. Why learn hundreds of unique characters when you could just learn 22 and then sound it out? This, along with their method of winemaking and the handled pots the Greeks would call "amphoras", proved immensely popular among the surrounding cultures, many of whom adopted it immediately, then added their own little flairs, like vowels and a left-to-right reading order in the Hellenic case.
Charlemagne !PXhMv3keyc - Wed, 28 Feb 2018 12:49:37 EST ID:RBbEukYB No.57393 Ignore Report Quick Reply
This prosperity, however, was not to last. In the 6th century BC, far off in the east, a small-time king conquered the Median Empire and began a steamroll of conquest that stretched from India to modern Turkey. As of 539 BC, this included the allied cities of Phoenicia. The Persian Empire would sound the death knell for the Levantine city-states as independent powers, ruling the area for two centuries. In 336 BC, Alexander III of Macedon ascended to the throne, and two years later embarked upon an invasion of the Achaemenid Empire. In 332 BC he made his way to the island city of Tyre and resolved to take it. This was no easy matter when defended by a Phoenician navy, and a brutal siege commenced involving Alexander building a stone land bridge more than half a kilometer long despite being assailed every step of the way. When the city was finally breached, the ensuing sack was a massacre in which, according to numbers given by the Romans (which are always dubious, but it's what we've got), 8,000 citizens were killed and the remaining 30,000 were sold into slavery.
Alexander, upon subduing the Levantine region, continued conquering to Egypt, India and beyond, until he finally died at age 32 of a fever, or poisoning. Whichever. Left without a clear successor, his various relatives, advisors and military comrades immediately split the newly conquered territories amongst themselves. Phoenicia would swap the Persian yoke for the Seleucid until the arrival of a new, Roman yoke in 65 BC.
I was going to do Carthage but, frankly, it's the last day of the month and I still have the culture section ahead of me. You all suffer for my sloth.

As stated before, while the Phoenicians apparently had a great literary tradition to go with their system of writing, all of it apparently rotted away. That said, all we have left is their more lasting contributions: sculpture, pottery and metalwork. What we find is about what you'd expect from a trading culture surrounded by large powers; the Phoenician style was really more of an amalgam of all the surrounding styles. Their sarcophagi have a distinctly Egyptian flair, as does the posing of their statuary, and when it doesn't look Egyptian, it looks Greek. That said, while they may not have been terribly original, they did produce some fantastically beautiful works of art.
Beyond that, the skill in shipbuilding shown by the Phoenicians is exemplary. It's arguable that the Phoenicians more or less taught the rest of the Mediterranean how to operate on the water, and are believed to have pioneered the use of multiple rowing decks in the first biremes (an achievement outdone by their Carthaginian descendants, who boasted quinqueremes in the Punic Wars). A Pharoah, Assyrian king or Persian emperor who controlled Phoenicia was a happy one when he looked at the sea. In fact, Herodotus writes of the Emperor Xerxes holding a great sea race among his many coastal satrapies, and when the Sidonian vessel won, Xerxes made sure that whenever he stepped on a galley, it was a Phoenician one.

Unfortunately, I don't have any music for you this month.

I'll be honest, I kinda phoned it in at the end of this one. Besides the woes of moving, I didn't start this until maybe a week or two ago. I'll definitely be more proactive for March's COTM. You're all, as always, welcome to suggest topics, but I'm gonna try and pick on quickly one the grounds that putting work in throughout the month will create a better product than the cram this has been. Of course, just because your topic doesn't get picked one month, it doesn't mean it never will.

Here's a good link I found a bit too late: https://phoenicia.org/index.shtml
Shitting Savingshit - Thu, 01 Mar 2018 01:40:58 EST ID:zPMk1XQv No.57394 Ignore Report Quick Reply
No need to kick yourself, bro. It may not be comprehensive but it was a damn good read and has plenty of interesting information. I had never even heard of the Habiru before this, and I am now curious as to when the switch occured from snail-based purple dye to the oyster blood-based purple dye mentioned by Marcus Aurelius in his Meditations.

It's a post on the weed imageboard, not a doctoral thesis. You're fine :)
Charlemagne !PXhMv3keyc - Thu, 01 Mar 2018 10:29:48 EST ID:SDfSRyX/ No.57395 Ignore Report Quick Reply
They're probably the same mollusc; I didn't look into that bit particularly hard.

The Habiru are fascinating to me because everyone had a word for them and basically every large power has a few surviving writings bitching about them stealing horses or something.
There's also a good amount of academic conjecture regarding whether they're actually Hebrews, but I think that view has fallen by the wayside.
William Nanderham - Fri, 02 Mar 2018 07:43:40 EST ID:BrfXiFVX No.57396 Ignore Report Quick Reply
This is a nice thread.

We need more of these things on the inactive boards
Walter Brookford - Fri, 02 Mar 2018 21:53:25 EST ID:wY8hsOs0 No.57397 Ignore Report Quick Reply
First off- this IS a brilliant fucking thread I commend OP. PLEASE keep going!

To this persons point- I strongly recommend Karen Armstrongs History of God- I only say so because you mention Marduk. The cultural evolution of religion, having it's very foundations in Sumeria, brilliantly portrayed in that text.
Charlemagne !PXhMv3keyc - Sat, 03 Mar 2018 13:39:45 EST ID:SDfSRyX/ No.57398 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Ancient Iraq by George Roux seems to be the standard text on the subject. It was written in like the 60's though so it may be getting a bit dated.
Polly Gippertodge - Mon, 05 Mar 2018 22:53:04 EST ID:yKb3KU3b No.57399 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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that was a very educational read. i know little of history. RIP Phoenicia. thank you OP for this excellent thread and please continue in your work i will remain a reader for sure
Jack Clayhood - Wed, 14 Mar 2018 20:25:20 EST ID:Q7nozEwK No.57400 Ignore Report Quick Reply
OP is a god-king
Hannah Fanway - Fri, 16 Mar 2018 01:33:18 EST ID:zPMk1XQv No.57403 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Fucking Buzzville - Sat, 31 Mar 2018 23:14:33 EST ID:H9z/rL/N No.57418 Ignore Report Quick Reply
It's okay Chuck. I know how much work goes into this. nb.
Wesley Fozzlesutch - Fri, 20 Apr 2018 16:52:55 EST ID:/mZfItc6 No.57444 Ignore Report Quick Reply
bump, hoping april has a civilization
Sophie Mushkut - Wed, 25 Apr 2018 01:06:58 EST ID:qQ6l2aqC No.57446 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I'd be glad to help OP if he needs help researching
George Pollydock - Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:37:34 EST ID:GI2SdNpw No.57447 Ignore Report Quick Reply
D: is OP okay? We didnt get a civilization of the month for March or April yet D:
Martin Shittingson - Sat, 28 Apr 2018 23:12:58 EST ID:/mZfItc6 No.57448 Ignore Report Quick Reply

maybe you need to take up the mantle yourself. some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.
John Cidgedock - Wed, 23 May 2018 19:56:51 EST ID:lh5Wt8gd No.57455 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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Fucking Sennerpag - Wed, 06 Jun 2018 20:57:36 EST ID:/JUDCgXP No.57459 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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OP =,(
Graham Callerfure - Thu, 07 Jun 2018 01:33:32 EST ID:ynMD0T+l No.57460 Ignore Report Quick Reply
ancient civilization of the month:
he was good, then he ded
Simon Sorringdale - Wed, 13 Jun 2018 03:23:29 EST ID:ifP+KLNs No.57462 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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