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It was the first art style I think I really fell in love with as a teen. I was actually fairly obsessive with it, not because I agree with any of its normative claims, but because I thought the pieces were beautiful, and I found the ideology fascinating.
It's worth considering how the futurists were really sort of taking the nature focus of the romantics, and inverting, or at least refocusing/distorting, it. The romantics thought that the enlightenment had put too much focus on science/reason transcending natural boundaries; instead, they saw people as part of nature. In that way, the perspective of the romantics was almost sort of a precursor to deep ecology. The gothic romantics focused on showing the horrors of trying to break away from nature, through demonstrating perversions like Frankenstein's monster.
The futurists had this same focus on their environment. The difference was, they reasoned that their environment wasn't forests or valleys; it was cities, factories, and technology. This artificial environment favored innovation like the enlightenment, but they celebrated the extremities of the environment those technological innovations were creating - the extreme speeds, increased violence, bright lights... all quite overwhelming.
This was reflected in the political ideologies that the futurists adopted, for better and worse. Early on they liked the idea of revolution and progress, so most were socialists, and a few were anarchists. However, most of the futurists were patriotically Italian, so when Mussolini rose to prominence, most flipped and became devout fascists. A few did remain left wing and staunchly anti-fascist, though.
The paintings the movement produced are gorgeous. The cubist influence is obvious, with colors acting like refracted light. It's all pretty dazzling. The focus on movement is quite taking as well.
To perhaps point out the obvious, futurism's most notable descendants are cyberpunk literature and industrial music. However, they completely reject the romanticism of the original movement, as well they should. Instead, they point the decay and depravity that our obsession with tech leads to. Cyberpunk almost always emphasizes the loss of humanity in futuristic urban settings, as with things like Blade Runner and Ghost in the Shell. Some early industrial groups emphasized urban decay, like Einstürzende Neubauten and Test Dept, while others focused on the sheer horrors that tech had caused in the 20th century, like Throbbing Gristle.