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How much Sodium Carbonate -> basify by breakabond !!D0XjIgKF - Sat, 21 Jan 2017 01:17:05 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78484 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1484979425963.jpg -(34039B / 33.24KB, 513x392) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 34039
How much sodium carbonate would convert 1 molecule of Heroin HCl, or wait, would it be Acetate, yeah.
How much sodium carbonate 1 molecule Heroin acetate -> Heroin base.
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Sat, 21 Jan 2017 02:36:00 EST ID:Req4jw5M No.78486 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78484
Oh god this is molar math all over again. Don't make me do this shit.
>>
Eliza Deckleville - Sat, 21 Jan 2017 13:40:00 EST ID:mtR9OsDm No.78487 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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>>78484
drop the fuckin na2co3 on that heronz till you damn sure youve put 10 times the molar excess
>>
Isabella Sundlelock - Sat, 21 Jan 2017 16:29:41 EST ID:01P1ms0Q No.78488 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78486
I gotchu muh nigga.

One molecule of sodium carbonate will convert two molecules of heroin HCl to produce freebase diamorphine, sodium chloride, water, and carbon dioxide. So two molecules of heroin will require 1.7600206 x 10^-22g of sodium carbonate to turn into freebase.

0.0000000000000000000017600206g of sodium carbonate is required to convert 0.00000000000000000000012268682g of heroin hcl to freebase.
>>
Isabella Sundlelock - Sat, 21 Jan 2017 16:33:42 EST ID:01P1ms0Q No.78489 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78488
Wait. I missed a zero. That should be:

0.00000000000000000000017600206g of sodium carbonate and 0.00000000000000000000012268682g of heroin hcl


Guy who wanted to mix two solids for X-Ray analysis by Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Fri, 20 Jan 2017 14:52:25 EST ID:jTCURNhV No.78483 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1484941945945.jpg -(137980B / 134.75KB, 809x656) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 137980
I guess because of a certain news article, we can't discuss specific molecules like that here............ I suppose the molecule in question is attracting too much media attention so even on a small board such as this, it is unwise to do so?

Sorry anon for killing your thread for asking for specifics.


Anorganic Chem Q by Cedric Lightfield - Wed, 18 Jan 2017 06:14:04 EST ID:+xNTZBER No.78473 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1484738044507.png -(1001768B / 978.29KB, 734x1088) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 1001768
So me and my colleague are arguing about whether KOH or NaOH is stronger base. While in practice it is not important, I'd argue that theoretically it must be KOH, as the enthalpy of K+ is lower, therefore KOH will be more likely to dissociate. However, the colleague is buzzing around with a dubious Pkbn from chembuddy which states that pKbn values for NaOH and KOH are 0.2 and 0.5 respectively, indicating that NaOH would in fact be a stronger base (and LiOH the strongest). Why would that be? Pls explain. pic unrel
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Thu, 19 Jan 2017 23:37:12 EST ID:Req4jw5M No.78475 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78473
Electron density is spread out in potassium compared to sodium. This is why potassium carbonate is slightly soluble in acetone compared to sodium and why you see cesium carbonate used in research papers.
The same holds true for hydroxides.


E=MC^2 question by Martin Crepperfuck - Thu, 22 Dec 2016 12:08:21 EST ID:E5ztys4h No.78408 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1482426501194.jpg -(953131B / 930.79KB, 1600x780) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 953131
So I was randomly thinking about Einsteins most popular contribution to physics, and I have a problem with it:

If E=MC^2, then how is it possible that a mass-less photon can carry any energy?

I expect there's probably a well established answer to this, but in trying to track it down I'm realizing a lot of this stuff is well above my reading level.
10 posts and 1 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
>>
Nigel Peffingpuck - Fri, 06 Jan 2017 23:00:41 EST ID:9VezcTCu No.78455 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78433
This is correct. E = mc2 is incomplete
The full equation is E2 = m2c4 + p2

E is the energy
m is the mass
c is the speed of light
p is the momentum
>>
Nigel Peffingpuck - Fri, 06 Jan 2017 23:02:13 EST ID:9VezcTCu No.78456 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78455
> + p2c2
Forgot a term, derpderpderp nb
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Sun, 08 Jan 2017 01:04:56 EST ID:zRXgL70Z No.78460 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78433
Good thread.

Also a good question by OP.

nb for answered question
>>
Charles Huvinggold - Wed, 11 Jan 2017 12:00:39 EST ID:rybJ4K29 No.78462 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78460
Hi babe, I just wonder if phen and trypt synth threads are still alive?

Also come visit us on psy every once in a while, you are a good man..
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Thu, 12 Jan 2017 02:03:23 EST ID:8NEuSnNe No.78465 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78462
Thanks! Those threads have more or less died at this point. My experiences with psychedelics is on hiatus since I my consecutive ego deaths on like 750 LSD, 35mg 2-CE, 125mg 4-AcO-DMT, and other doses similar.

That shit actually scares me to the point where weed gives me intense spiritual flashbacks and really need to take a break. Times a changed, I guess. I'll be back soon, though.

Keep grooving in the meantime and ask any question whatsoever.


Where are the fucking units by breakabond !!D0XjIgKF - Fri, 13 Jan 2017 10:55:34 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78467 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1484322934943.jpg -(11152B / 10.89KB, 257x136) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 11152
Can someone tell me what the units here are?
(<-- image)

source: http://www.pharmpress.com/files/docs/Excipients7e_samplemonos(1).pdf
>>
trypto - Fri, 13 Jan 2017 11:17:46 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78468 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Mass percent.

g(solute)/g(solvent)
>>
trypto - Fri, 13 Jan 2017 11:20:10 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78469 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78468
Whoops. Actually, not mass percent since it's not multiplied by 100. Mass ratio?
>>
Bombastus !uYErosQbLM!!Mybq1UbK - Sat, 14 Jan 2017 00:36:57 EST ID:YTE4hsRA No.78470 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78467
I looked this shit up and it's g in ml. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/D-mannitol#section=2D-Structure

Strictly speaking, if I saw this in a research paper, I would think that it said 1 molecule of mannitol dissolves in x molecules of the solvent. This is very lazy of the people who made this.
>>
breakabond !!D0XjIgKF - Sat, 14 Jan 2017 05:57:36 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78471 Ignore Report Quick Reply
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>>78470


Denatured alcohol by Martha Brookdale - Mon, 26 Dec 2016 15:26:13 EST ID:H7AhQjrZ No.78423 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1482783973025.png -(231824B / 226.39KB, 331x522) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 231824
I have this product (see image), and I evaporated a few drops on a clean mirror and it left a noticeable residue.

In the SDS (https://www.korellis.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Alcohol-Denatured.pdf) it only lists methanol and ethanol as components, so what is the residue left behind, and how harmful would it be to consume?
4 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
>>
Phoebe Sirrydock - Mon, 02 Jan 2017 17:58:01 EST ID:6+KMGshk No.78434 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78423
very, there is typically benzene in these products (generally not listed). Benzene is incredibly cancerous. Go save up your allowance and buy some actual booze.
>>
Oliver Blatherson - Tue, 03 Jan 2017 19:02:38 EST ID:RKOZdJ0v No.78442 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78429
nobody was talking about drinking it haha
>>
Shitting Mimmlefirk - Thu, 05 Jan 2017 12:57:20 EST ID:kquaKHd6 No.78445 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Looking @ page 3, subsection 3 of that msds:

Ethanol concentration is 30-50%
Methanol concentrate is 40-60%

So, the ethanol/methanol mixture will make up between 110% and 70% of what's in that can. The other 30%? Prolly shit from wood when they made this 'wood alcohol'
>>
Shitting Mimmlefirk - Thu, 05 Jan 2017 13:07:13 EST ID:kquaKHd6 No.78446 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Honestly, it's probably exactly the sort of thing that you don't want to go into your body. As in, Exactly. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. Everything that's bad except for biologically derived venoms.
>>
Martha Nicklewill - Thu, 12 Jan 2017 23:07:52 EST ID:DZQn4yU5 No.78466 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78446
They do this on purpose to make money from alcohol tax.

Pretty sure it's not listed on the MSDS and it distills over at similair temps.


DIY Batteries by Nicholas Wibbleson - Tue, 10 Jan 2017 11:48:31 EST ID:32cXOz64 No.78461 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1484066911864.png -(1801389B / 1.72MB, 863x1343) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 1801389
sup /chem/,

Looking for some decent DIY battery ideas. Doesn't have to be too compact, but I would like for it to fit on a desk perhaps and be able to shit out roughly 1.5-3.5V and maybe max ~25mA.

I've tried my had at a few types (pic related: quick dirty Earth battery with copper and zinc cathode/anodes) including earth (using several combos of cath/anodes), zinc-air, Al-air, and am setting up to create a MnO2+Alum/graphite cell just to test.

Question: What are some decent DIY battery builds? I'm not asking for any steps, simply just metal combos and whatever medium suites said combo. The charge density isn't all that important as it's to be expected to need to be recharged/reloaded. I'm certain with another cathode/anode in the Earth Battery pictured and a simple joule thief, I could squeeze out around 1.5V (haven't checked the amps yet). The idea here is just to get more ideas for DIY batteries and perhaps ideas for better performance. I'm aware of galvanic series and electrical potential, so I believe this thread is best suited for discussion and possibly personal experience.

Cheers
>>
trypto - Wed, 11 Jan 2017 21:28:31 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78463 Ignore Report Quick Reply
I think some type of lead-acid battery would be best. I don't have any experience with it, but it sounds like a cool project.


Solubility by Nell Dannerworth - Tue, 03 Jan 2017 12:29:11 EST ID:2qfcsxJx No.78437 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1483464551616.jpg -(8271B / 8.08KB, 250x250) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 8271
I recently did some undergraduate research with a professor in organic synthesis and was curious about what the factors for solubility are. I was under the impression that it was all about size and polarity, but i'm getting conflicting results. I had synthesized several molecules which had phenyl groups. Since this was some discovery chemistry, I made "copies" of these molecules but with substitutions at the para positions of the aromatic ring in order to increase reactivity through electron withdrawing effects (para-nitro substitution) or decrease reactivity through electron donating effects (para-methoxy substitution).

What I noticed was that my molecule which had two phenyl rings with para-substituted nitro groups was more polar than the same molecule with no substitution (least polar) and that with the para-methoxy (middle polarity), but it had the worst solubility of the three.

In fact, the one with the unsubstituted aromatic rings was the most soluble in methanol, despite being the least polar.

What factors are at play here? the nitro compound basically only dissolved decently in DCM, which made working with it incredibly frustrating. Yet slightly more or less polar solvents didn't or barely worked to dissolve it. I'd like to know what factors to consider for the next time I work in a lab so I can more easily predict some of the properties of the molecules I'll be synthesizing.
>>
trypto - Tue, 03 Jan 2017 16:07:49 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78438 Ignore Report Quick Reply
The Nitro-substituted molecules probably have more lattice energy (solute-solute interactions), making it more difficult for the methanol to get in there. Think about how the molecules could potentially crystalize.

If you just have phenyl groups on something else uninteresting, there's not much opportunity. Maybe some pi-stacking. Wheras with the nitro group, you might have some strong H-Bonding going on.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enthalpy_change_of_solution

>I'd like to know what factors to consider for the next time I work in a lab so I can more easily predict some of the properties of the molecules I'll be synthesizing.

Most of the time, just go off polarity and like-attracts-like. Then try out different solvents. Unless you're doing QM simulations, this is the best way. And even then, your empirical results will come in faster.
>>
Shitting Mimmlefirk - Thu, 05 Jan 2017 12:50:10 EST ID:kquaKHd6 No.78444 Ignore Report Quick Reply
1483638610851.gif -(1785B / 1.74KB, 314x187) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hildebrand_solubility_parameter

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hansen_solubility_parameter

Solubility is a function of associative energy. If you can keep the different types of energies straight, you can think of them as vectors (I think), and if two compounds wind up next to each other on the plot then they're miscible/soluble.

Hansen is newer and more sophisticated than Hildebrand I believe
>>
Esther Sarringlane - Fri, 06 Jan 2017 13:36:53 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78449 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78444
So if we have all these equations for solubility, how hard is it to throw it all into a program where you draw any molecule and find out what it's soluble in (and how soluble).
>>
trypto - Sat, 07 Jan 2017 00:04:32 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78457 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78449
It's faster to simply use a rule of thumb, and try 3-6 of the common lab solvents before you find the best solvent (and how soluble it is).

If you really wanted to do it computationally, then you'd need a great graphics card, and a workflow for DFT calculations. There's a handful of programs used for this, and they all have a high learning curve. Spartan is probably the easiest, though it's closed source and expensive. I don't know the exact steps needed.

In general, it's pretty hard.
>>
trypto - Sat, 07 Jan 2017 00:09:24 EST ID:ltcKYWSL No.78458 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78457
Actually, Amazon ec2 would be better than a good graphics card. But you'd still want a decent card for when you're leanring.


Climate Metric by Jack Sopperham - Sun, 01 Jan 2017 23:14:21 EST ID:VjvGmScF No.78431 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1483330461439.jpg -(18218B / 17.79KB, 529x163) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 18218
Imagine you have a big list of cities and wanted to concisely get an idea of what the weather is like over there.
If conciseness and speed wasn't a problem, you could look at a graph like that for each city, but that's not feasible.

So what metrics would you need to accurately capture the climate of that area? Less is better, so all I can think of is: average lowest temp, average highest temp.
Any other ideas?
7 posts omitted. Click Reply to view.
>>
Ernest Gagglehood - Fri, 06 Jan 2017 20:13:59 EST ID:sGpcPJT1 No.78452 Ignore Report Quick Reply
This is mostly me signalling my relevant degrees, but climates is long-term af weather be short-term. People already measure dat shit mane.
>>
Angus Billingbury - Fri, 06 Jan 2017 22:28:18 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78454 Ignore Report Quick Reply
If you were to go about building a "climate score" for every city such that you could simply compare based on temperature alone, how would you do it?!?!?>
>>
Edward Blussledon - Sat, 07 Jan 2017 23:36:23 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78459 Ignore Report Quick Reply
cmonnnnnnnnnnn
>>
Barnaby Samblewell - Thu, 12 Jan 2017 00:52:43 EST ID:Q+12w2DB No.78464 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>how do i climate

nb.
>>
breakabond !!D0XjIgKF - Sat, 21 Jan 2017 01:20:39 EST ID:zsw9I8fO No.78485 Ignore Report Quick Reply
1484979639371.jpg -(136536B / 133.34KB, 1024x765) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size.
tada: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6ppen_climate_classification


lifespan by Priscilla Drucklemidge - Sat, 24 Dec 2016 05:44:01 EST ID:RKOZdJ0v No.78416 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
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sorry for the stupid question, chemistry is def my weakest area

a search tells me that PG USP/EP has a shelf life of two years when stored below 40°C (104°F) in closed containers away from sources of ultraviolet (UV) light.
should i only make enough solution to last a couple years? how long can refrigeration extend this?
>>
Walter Bullermit - Sun, 25 Dec 2016 11:46:47 EST ID:Hzvahzwj No.78420 Ignore Report Quick Reply
1482684407733.jpg -(11497B / 11.23KB, 256x192) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size.
>>78416
im assuming that youre using food grade proplyglycol

the shelf life is a legal thing. in my country carbonated water has a declared shelf life.
as long as you store the PG in a somewhat airtight bottle away from heat and intense sunlight, itll be fine.

but depending on what kind of solution youre talking about it might be a good idea to only make it depending on your on usage. nicotine does oxidize a bit, eventhough that in my experience the slight oxidation improves taste of e cig juice.

refrigeration would extend the time period theoretically if the solution is stored in an air tight bottle. besides the legal bullshit this might give a rough estimate of extrapolated shelf life https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q10_(temperature_coefficient)
but that shit quite often fails in practical application as far as ive seen.
>>
Emma Fanbanks - Sun, 25 Dec 2016 12:53:48 EST ID:G2GUCRy9 No.78421 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Why would you need more than a couple of years worth of any kind of solution?
>>
John Semmerforth - Mon, 26 Dec 2016 04:09:20 EST ID:RKOZdJ0v No.78422 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78420
thanks!

>>78421
i'm getting a quantity of a research chemical large enough to outlive its legal status (presumably)
i know i can just... keep them not mixed, but i wanted to know if mixing would make the situation worse or not
>>78420
>>
David Noblingchene - Thu, 29 Dec 2016 00:56:04 EST ID:Fe+cUsBQ No.78426 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78422
You will not regret keeping your entire stash out of solution. Isn't that enough?
>>
Clara Dablingmick - Thu, 29 Dec 2016 18:26:59 EST ID:RKOZdJ0v No.78428 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78426
it is! just curious!


Mescaline Creation by Bombastus !!HToBa9dh - Fri, 21 Aug 2015 17:13:58 EST ID:4ppVjZXo No.76958 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1440191638629.jpg -(42448B / 41.45KB, 460x422) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 42448
I just proposed this on /psy/ so let's see what you people think.
>>>/psy/839044

I do have an add-on, though. L-Tyrosine can be decarboxylated to Tyramine so you don't have to get a shitload of cheese to extract. From there, you can just brominate it selectively in basic conditions to brominate the carbons meta to the hydroxide. A simple LG > Hydroxide reaction later, you'll have 2,3,4 tri-hydroxyl(aminoethyl)benzene.

One simple reflux with 4eq of Methyliodide should yield mescaline in 95%+ yields. What do you think, /chem/?
76 posts and 16 images omitted. Click Reply to view.
>>
Alice Fuckinggold - Sat, 28 May 2016 09:46:02 EST ID:FN2WDMDT No.77921 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>76986
>There has been a misunderstanding of hydrolysis to lysergic acid that I just discovered myself last night. I was looking at a joint paper by Opava and Galena published in 2000 that does an enzymatic hydrolysis using microbes, but as I read the paper they proceeded to perform the hydrolysis by normal KOH means. I noticed that the hydrolysis was very mild and low yielding and did not use microbes so I was wondering what was going on. But then I saw that what they were doing was performing hydrolysis on ergotamine to lysergamide (ergine) and then stop and continue the rest of the hydrolysis by enzymatic means. So I went and revisited all the prior ergot hydrolysis' and it occurred to me that hydrolysis of ergopeptines is actually a 2-step process. When you perform a hydrolysis you are actually performing a hydrolysis of the ergopeptine to a lysergic amide (LSA) and then after you have LSA you perform a hydrolysis to lysergic acid. This has never really been pointed out because it is all the same procedure, but it is actually important to note when researching different hydrolysis'. For example, an hydrolysis on LSA's extracted straight from HBWR seeds does not have to be as harsh as one performed on ergotamine which has to first undergo hydrolysis to LSA and THEN to lysergic acid. That is why some hydrolysis' you come across can be weaker or stronger. For example, the Galena/Opava hydrolysis was performed at %4 KOH in ethanol for 2 hours (only acid hydrolysis actually requires water as a solvent). This is in contradiction to Smith and Tinnis in the 1930's who declared that lysergic acid cannot be achieved below a %7 KOH content as it is too mild. But Galena/Opava was just performing hydrolysis on ergotamine to LSA, not fully to lysergic acid, so they could do it under milder conditions. And also what wasn't known in the 1930's with regards to hydrolysis of ergopeptines is that heat and time can make up for milder basic conditions. Hence Shulgin's very mild hydrolysis performed just in water at 75c with a mere %6.7 KOH content but done over 4 hours. So basically hydrolysis of ergopeptines is a 2-step process and depending on how many of those 2-steps you need to ac…
Comment too long. Click here to view the full text.
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Sophie Honeyfoot - Sat, 09 Jul 2016 03:59:45 EST ID:UX5Tgvrg No.78075 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>77920
I take 1mg doses like yearly lol
>>
Nell Gecklecocke - Fri, 23 Dec 2016 23:17:17 EST ID:DPjhXpIm No.78415 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>76973
A good old methylamination with benzaldehyde then a reduction for some trimethoxyamphetamine, a 1000 percent increse in potentcy.
>>
Schepperschop - Sat, 24 Dec 2016 13:33:31 EST ID:xTIigKo1 No.78417 Ignore Report Quick Reply
Find the cactus>>Eat the cactus
>>
press - Sun, 25 Dec 2016 11:24:27 EST ID:Hzvahzwj No.78419 Ignore Report Quick Reply
>>78415
i think you mean a henry condensation with a following reduction?

tfw calmus oil is expenis as fuck and you cant just go via reductive amination for tma2


Solubility question by Ebenezer Hattingnack - Sat, 24 Dec 2016 18:26:32 EST ID:750GEpVs No.78418 Ignore Report Reply Quick Reply
File: 1482621992333.png -(491474B / 479.96KB, 500x484) Thumbnail displayed, click image for full size. 491474
Is α-Methylfentanyl alcohol soluble, or is there something else you'd recommend?


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